There is high self-reported retention and appropriate use of ITNs distributed by a community-based outpatient HIV clinic in Rakai, Uganda. In this rural region with moderate seasonal falciparum malaria, 75% of surveyed households had no ITNs except from the HIV treatment programme; in these households no other organization had provided ITNs, nor had any been purchased, although ITNs are available for sale in the community.
Study participants, who were the initial recipients of households ITNs, were the most likely person to report having slept under ITNs. While there is data suggesting that decreasing the burden of malaria in HIV-positive persons improves clinical outcomes , the majority of participants in this study were also receiving chronic trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis, which has anti-malarial properties. Because of this, HIV patients on chronic trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis, especially children, may be at less risk of malaria-related morbidity and mortality than some HIV-negative members of their households, who are not taking trimethoprim-sulfaphamethoxazole. 
Approximately half of pregnant women in participant households reportedly did not sleep under available ITNs. The benefits of ITN distribution to HIV patients could be enhanced by instructing recipients to have pregnant women and children under five also sleep under ITNs. Further investigation of co-sleeping patterns, provision of enough ITNs for all household members, and more detailed assessment regarding perceptions of who benefits most from ITN use may be beneficial. Additionally, families living within 300 meters of a household with an ITN have been shown to have reductions in child mortality, moderate anaemia, and high density parasitaemia.  ITN provision to HIV-affected individuals in high HIV-prevalence communities may serve an important role in a strategy of 'herd protection' if high ITN coverage is achieved in targeted communities.
This survey was limited to reports from those randomly selected individuals who agreed to participate. In addition, participants were interviewed by staff from the same programme which distributed ITNs and provided HIV care. Thus there was high potential for social desirability bias which may explain the difference between reported 123/128 (96%, CI: 93%–99%) proportion of programme ITNs in use by at least one household member and the 10/13 (77%, CI: 8%–50%) proportion of ITNs actually found to be mounted when inspected during home visits (although the total number of observations was small, and 95% confidence intervals nearly overlap). More home visits would have been advantageous, but were not possible given resource constraints. Regardless, ITN hang-up campaigns might remedy the fact that some ITNs were found un-mounted in homes.