Open Access

Detection of 1014F kdr mutation in four major Anopheline malaria vectors in Indonesia

  • Din Syafruddin1, 2Email author,
  • Anggi PN Hidayati1,
  • Puji BS Asih1,
  • William A Hawley3,
  • Supratman Sukowati4 and
  • Neil F Lobo5
Malaria Journal20109:315

DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-315

Received: 7 July 2010

Accepted: 8 November 2010

Published: 8 November 2010

Abstract

Background

Malaria is a serious public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in areas outside Java and Bali. The spread of resistance to the currently available anti-malarial drugs or insecticides used for mosquito control would cause an increase in malaria transmission. To better understand patterns of transmission and resistance in Indonesia, an integrated mosquito survey was conducted in three areas with different malaria endemicities, Purworejo in Central Java, South Lampung District in Sumatera and South Halmahera District in North Mollucca.

Methods

Mosquitoes were collected from the three areas through indoor and outdoor human landing catches (HLC) and indoor restinging catches. Specimens were identified morphologically by species and kept individually in 1.5 ml Eppendorf microtube. A fragment of the VGSC gene from 95 mosquito samples was sequenced and kdr allelic variation determined.

Results

The molecular analysis of these anopheline mosquitoes revealed the existence of the 1014F allele in 4 major malaria vectors from South Lampung. These species include, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles vagus. The 1014F allele was not found in the other areas.

Conclusion

The finding documents the presence of this mutant allele in Indonesia, and implies that selection pressure on the Anopheles population in this area has occurred. Further studies to determine the impact of the resistance allele on the efficacy of pyrethroids in control programmes are needed.

Background

The archipelago nation of Indonesia is commonly divided into two regions based on malaria endemicity; Java and Bali, inhabited by approximately 62% of the total Indonesian population, is classified as hypo-endemic area, whereas the more sparsely populated outer islands, including Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and Papua, have malaria at much higher levels, ranging from hypo to hyper endemic. All four species of human malaria are found in Indonesia. Formerly, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale were mostly found in the eastern part of Indonesia - Nusa Tenggara Timur and Papua - but in recent years, P. malariae has been detected in western parts of the archipelago as well [1, 2]. Vivax malaria was more predominant in Java while in the outer islands the prevalence of vivax and falciparum malaria have been equivalent [2].

During the pre-eradication era, malaria morbidity country-wide was as higher than it is in eastern Indonesia at present. The estimated annual malaria cases and deaths were around 30 million and 120,000, respectively [2]. Recently, the annual parasite incidence (API) varied substantially among the provinces in Java and Bali, but in the year of 2007, the highest API was detected in Bali province. In areas outside Java and Bali, the highest annual malaria incidence (AMI) was detected in West Papua Province [3].

Malaria parasites in Indonesia are transmitted by more than a dozen species of Anopheles mosquitoes that vary markedly in biological attributes, including patterns of blood feeding, response to insecticides, resting behavior and larval habitats. This variation impacts the effectiveness of interventions such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and larval habitat treatments or modifications [49]. Resistance to insecticides may also compromise the effectiveness of interventions. Determining the impact of resistance on malaria transmission is complicated by the multiple molecular resistance mechanisms and by the dynamics of the emergence and spread of resistance genotypes in vector populations [8, 9].

Insecticide resistance mechanisms may have varying impact on the effectiveness of insecticide-based control programmes. Knowledge of resistance mechanisms is necessary to guide insecticide use in vector control programmes. Molecular studies over the past decades have identified several polymorphisms associated with the resistance phenotype; eg. resistance against pyrethroids and DDT, known as knock-down resistance (kdr), has been linked to mutations in the para-type, voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene. Knockdown resistance has also been described in several insect species [1015]. In the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s, two substitutions at codon 1014 (L1014F and L1014S) of domain II of the sodium channel gene have been associated with knockdown resistance [10, 1619].

A nation-wide malaria control programme was launched by the government of Indonesia in 1952 [20]. This effort included case treatment with chloroquine and vector control using insecticide residual spraying (IRS) with dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT). Following the retraction of DDT in 1970s, organophosphates, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroids were introduced to replace DDT. Some insecticides have also concomitantly been used for controlling agricultural pests [21].

Resistance of malaria vectors to various insecticides in Indonesia has been documented. DDT and dieldrin resistance has been reported in Anopheles aconitus - an important vector in rural Java and Bali [2226]. Resistance to DDT was also reported in Anopheles sundaicus, the main malaria vector in the coastal area of East Java, Lampung and Cilacap [24]. Biochemical assays to detect sensitivity of Anopheles maculatus, An. aconitus and An. sundaicus to organophosphates and carbamates reported tolerance or resistance ranging from 2.9% to 33.3%. Resistance to pyrethroids has also been reported in Anopheles spp. in Jepara, Central Java [21]. The present study aims to explore the allelic distribution of VGSC gene mutations among malaria vectors from 3 malaria endemic areas in Indonesia.

Methods

Study areas

Female anopheline mosquitoes were collected from three parts of Indonesia with different malaria endemicities, Purworejo in the central Java Province (hypo-endemic), South Lampung District in South Lampung Province (meso-endemic), the Southern tip of Sumatera, and South Halmahera District in North Mollucca Province (hyper-endemic) (Figure 1). The mosquitoes were collected by indoor and outdoor human landing catchs and resting catches during the period of November 2008-October 2009. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified to species using a key for female anopheles in Indonesia [26], desiccated individually in 1.5 ml Eppendorf microtubes with silica gel and stored at 4°C until analysis.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1475-2875-9-315/MediaObjects/12936_2010_Article_1397_Fig1_HTML.jpg
Figure 1

The geographic locations of study sites in the map of Indonesia (square boxes) . Anopheles spp. were collected from the three areas of Indonesia representing different malaria endemicities, (□) = Purworejo (hypo-endemic), (Δ) = South Lampung (meso-endemic), and (ο) = South Halmahera (hyper-endemic). Drawn not to scale.

Extraction of mosquito DNA

Mosquitoes were ground with teflon pestles in 1.5 ml Eppendorf microtubes containing 25 μl of grinding buffer (0.1 M NaCl, 0.2 M sucrose, 0.1 M Tris HCl, 0.05 M EDTA, and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); (pH adjusted to 9.2). Mosquito DNA was extracted according to a procedure described previously [27]. DNA was either used immediately for a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or stored at -20°C for later analysis.

Gene amplification with PCR

A portion of the kdr gene was amplified using seminested-PCR employing oligos that have been previously published: AgF_kdr (5' GAC CAT GAT CTG CCA AGA TGG AAT 3') and AgR_kdr (5' GCA AGG CTA AGA AAA GGT TAA GCA 3') with slight modification [28]. The modification included the use of an external reverse oligo, An.kdr _R2 (5' GAG GAT GAA CCG AAA TTG GAC 3') as the single-step PCR using the previously published An. gambiae based oligos commonly failed to yield amplicons in these Indonesian species. Cycling condition for 1st PCR using oligos AgF_kdr x An.kdr _R2 was denaturation at 94°C for 5 min, annealing at 45°C for 30 sec, extension at 72°C for 1 min 30 sec (1 cycle) and denaturation at 94°C for 30 sec, annealing at 50°C for 30 sec, extension at 72°C for 1 min (29 cycles); and for 2nd PCR using AgF_kdr x An.R_kdr with denaturation at 94°C for 5 min, annealing at 45°C for 30 sec, extension at 72°C for 1 min (1 cycle) and denaturation at 94°C for 30 sec, annealing at 50°C for 30 sec, extension at 72°C for 40 sec (39 cycles). All reactions were carried out in 50 μl reaction mixtures containing 50 mM KCl, 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.3, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 200 mM dNTP, 1 unit of Tag polymerase, and a pair of primers (20 pM each). One to five microliters of DNA was used as template in the first reaction and 1-2 μl of the first round PCR was used as template in the second round of PCR. The PCR products of approximately 260 bp in size were sequenced in all individuals.

Results

Mosquito collection

In Lampung, 10 species of anopheles were caught with An. sundaicus being the dominant species (Table 1). In Purworejo, eight anopheles species were collected and Anopheles vagus was the dominant species. In South Halmahera, five Anopheles species were collected with An. vagus and Anopheles kochi being relatively dominant. All mosquitoes were collected with indoor and outdoor human landing catches or indoor resting catches.
Table 1

List of Anopheles species collected at each study site and methods of collection

Study sites

Species

Number of mosquitoes collected

Collection Method

Human Landing Catch (HLC)

Resting

Outdoor Landing

Indoor Landing

South

An. sundaicus

591

483

108

-

-

Lampung

An. vagus

11

9

2

-

-

 

An. subpictus

2

1

1

-

-

 

An. indefinitus

1

-

1

-

-

 

An. tessellatus

8

7

1

-

-

 

An. aconitus

7

7

-

-

-

 

An. minimus

2

2

-

-

-

 

An. kochi

2

2

-

-

-

 

An. annularis

4

2

2

-

-

 

An. barbirostris

1

1

-

-

-

Purworejo

An. aconitus

31

-

16

11

4

 

An. barbirostris

17

-

12

3

2

 

An. vagus

117

-

83

33

1

 

An. flavirostris

15

-

3

7

5

 

An. annularis

2

-

2

-

-

 

An. balabanceensis

10

-

-

8

2

 

An. tessellatus

1

-

-

-

1

 

An. maculatus

2

-

-

2

-

Halmahera

An. vagus

15

1

13

1

-

 

An. kochi

8

-

8

-

-

 

An. punctulatus

1

-

1

-

-

 

An. barbumrosus

1

1

-

-

-

 

An. farauti

3

-

-

3

-

PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the fragment of VGSC gene of various anopheles species from Indonesia

Using primers that were designed based on the published sequence of An. gambiae VGSC gene [GenBank Acc no. AY615628, AY533850, AYDQ026447], amplicons were obtained from 16 Anopheles spp collected from Lampung, Purworejo and South Halmahera, respectively. The amplicons of approximately 260 bp in size, were then prepared for DNA sequencing. The alignment of DNA sequencing results of each species is shown in Figure 2. As expected, the DNA sequence of the VGSC gene varied significantly among the Anopheles species analyzed, but the deduced amino acid sequences indicated a high level of sequence conservation (Figure 3).
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1475-2875-9-315/MediaObjects/12936_2010_Article_1397_Fig2_HTML.jpg
Figure 2

Electropherogram of the DNA sequencing of VGSC gene fragment from Anopheles tesselatus (A), Anopheles balabacensis (B), Anopheles sundaicus (C and D) from Indonesia . A and B indicate the wildtype allele, 1014L (TTA and CTA). C indicates resistance allele 1014F (TTT), and D indicates the mixed allelic types between L/F.

https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1475-2875-9-315/MediaObjects/12936_2010_Article_1397_Fig3_HTML.jpg
Figure 3

DNA sequence aligment of the fragment of VGSC gene encompassing nucleotides corresponding to the codon 1014 in various anopheles species from Indonesia . The kdr-w allele (TTT) is found either in homozygous- or in heterozygous form.

Distribution of kdr gene polymorphisms

Analysis of DNA sequences of 95 amplicons representing 16 species of Anopheles species indicated that the 1014F polymorphism of the VGSC gene, popularly known as 1014F allele was detected in An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, Anopheles subpictus and An. vagus isolated from South Lampung District, Lampung Province in Indonesia. This allele was found in either homozygous or heterozygous form. The 1014S allele was not found in any of the Anopheles species examined. The allele frequency of kdr alleles in each species is shown in Table 2. The overall allele frequency of 1014L and 1014F alleles among the all species of the anopheles examined in Lampung was 44.2% and 55.8%, respectively.
Table 2

Frequency of kdr allele in each Anopheles species examined at each study site

Study sites

Species

Total of samples analysed

Genotype frequency (%)

Allele Frequency (%)

L/L

L/F

F/F

L

F

South

An. sundaicus

40

22.5

10

67.5

27.5

72.5

Lampung

An. vagus

5

80

20

0

70

30

 

An. subpictus

2

50

0

50

50

50

 

An. indefinitus

1

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. tessellatus

4

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. aconitus

3

30

0

70

33.3

66.7

 

An. minimus

2

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. kochi

1

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. annularis

1

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. barbirostris

1

100

0

0

100

0

Purworejo

An. aconitus

6

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. barbirostris

4

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. vagus

7

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. flavirostris

3

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. annularis

1

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. balabanceensis

1

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. tessellatus

1

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. maculatus

1

100

0

0

100

0

Halmahera

An. vagus

5

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. kochi

2

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. punctulatus

1

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. barbumrosus

1

100

0

0

100

0

 

An. farauti

2

100

0

0

100

0

Discussion

The molecular analysis of the VGSC gene of mosquitoes collected in three malaria endemic areas of Indonesia: South Lampung, Purworejo and South Halmahera, indicate the existence of the 1014F allele in four species of malaria vectors in Lampung: An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. vagus and An. aconitus. The 1014F and 1014S alleles were first reported among Anopheles gambiae in West Africa and East Africa respectively, and was later also reported in Anopheles funestus, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles annularis, An. subpictus, Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles vagus from several places in Asia [13, 15, 1719, 29].

This is the first report of the existence of this resistance allele among Anopheles species in Indonesia and, therefore, has important implications for the management of malaria vector control in particular and integrated vector control in general. Anopheles sundaicus and Anopheles subpictus are major vectors of malaria in many coastal areas throughout western parts of Indonesia whereas Anopheles aconicus is a major vector in lowland areas [9, 10]. Anopheles vagus is abundant across a wide variety of habitats in Indonesia including coastal, lowland and hilly villages. A recent report incriminated this species as potential malaria vector in Timor Leste [30].

The results also support a previous report of resistance to DDT in An. sundaicus from the Lampung area, and that the existence of this kdr allele may be associated with the extensive use of DDT over three decades [see review [21]]. Although DDT was banned in Indonesia in 1970, the use of pyrethroids in both IRS and mosquito nets for vector control and to a lesser extent, for agricultural use may also maintain the insecticide pressure over the mosquito population. In this context, it is interesting to note that resistance alleles were not found in Anopheline catches from Purworejo, Central Java, particularly An. aconitus, where resistance to DDT and pyrethroids have been previously documented [21]. This phenomenon may be associated with the fact that insecticide use in Java, particularly for malaria control has been significantly reduced following the success of the malaria control programme to bring malaria incidence down to hypoendemic status in certain foci [20]. However, as the Anopheles samples analysed were relatively few, it is important to extend the analyses to include more Anopheles samples and species from the surrounding area.

The findings also indicate the importance of insecticide susceptibility monitoring before introducing new insecticides to a particular area as well as regular insecticide resistance surveillance after the onset of a control programme. Currently, there are four classes of insecticides that are available in Indonesia: organochlorines, organophosphate, Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitors and pyrethroids that target different biochemical pathways in mosquito and other insects in general. Resistance to the aforementioned insecticides class in Indonesia has been reported in Anopheles spp., Culex spp., Aedes spp., and other agricultural pests in various areas [21, 31, 32]. Sustainable insecticide resistance monitoring using bioassay and molecular tools would be an invaluable tool for providing information to decision makers at the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture to establish an integrated vector and pest control using appropriate insecticides.

Conclusion

This study provides the first report of the existence of the insecticide-resistant allele, 1014F, in malaria vectors in Sumatera. It is important to explore the extent of the distribution of resistance alleles among the mosquito populations as various mosquito borne diseases such such as Dengue, Filariasis, Japanese Encephalitis and Chikungunya, are endemic to Indonesia

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the support of the Eijkman Institute Jakarta, UNICEF Jakarta the National Institute of Health research and Development, Department of Health Jakarta, and all collegues from MTC Indonesia. The authors wish to thank Prof. Frank Collins of the Notre Dame University and Tom Burkot Ph.D from CDC-Atlanta for their encouragement and support for this study, Brandy St Laurent of the Notre Dame University, and health professional staff at Lampung, Purworejo and Halmahera for their assistance during sample's collected.

This study was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded Malaria Transmission Consortium Grant # 45114.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology
(2)
Department of Parasitology, Hasanuddin University
(3)
Division of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention
(4)
Health Ecology Research & Development Centre, National Institute of Health, Research and Development
(5)
Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame

References

  1. Fryauff DJ, Leksana B, Masbar S, Wiady I, Sismadi P, Susanti AI, Nagesha HS, Syafruddin , Atmosoedjono S, Bangs MJ, Baird JK: The drug sensitivity and transmission dynamics of human malaria on Nias Island, North Sumatera, Indonesia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002, 96: 447-462. 10.1179/000349802125001249.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. SEARO: Malaria situation in SEAR countries: Indonesia. 2007, [http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section21/Section340_4022.htm]Google Scholar
  3. Ministry of Health, Indonesia: Peta Kesehatan Indonesia. 2007, [http://www.depkes.go.id/downloads/publikasi/Peta%20Kesehatan%202007.pdf]Google Scholar
  4. Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, Directorate of Communicable Control Diseases: Malaria Situation in Indonesia - report. 2006Google Scholar
  5. Takken W, Snellen WB, Verhave JP, Knol BGJ, Atmosoedjono S: Environtal measures for malaria control in Indonesia. A historical review on species sanitation. 1990, Wagenigen: Wageningen, Netherlands, Wageningen Agricultural UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. Bangs MJ, Annis BA, Bahang ZH, Hamzah N, Arbani PR: Insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles koliensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastren Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1993, 24: 357-362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ndoen E, Wild C, Dale P, Sipe N, Dale M: Relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia. Malar J. 2009, 9: 242-10.1186/1475-2875-9-242.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Stoops CA, Rusmiarto S, Susapto D, Munif A, Andris H, Barbara KA, Sukowati S: Bionomics of Anopheles spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. J Vector Ecol. 2009, 342: 200-207.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Garros C, Van Bortel W, Trung HD, Coosemans M: Review of the minimus complex of Anopheles, main malaria vector in Southeast Asia: from taxonomic issues to vector control strategies. Trop Med Int Health. 2006, 11: 102-114. 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01536.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Martinez-Torrez D, Chandre F, Williamson MS, Darriet F, Berge JB, Dovonshire AL, Guillet P, Pasteur N, Pouron D: Molecular characteristization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Insect Mol Biol. 1998, 7: 179-184. 10.1046/j.1365-2583.1998.72062.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Soderlund DM, Knippe DC: The molecular biology of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003, 33: 563-577. 10.1016/S0965-1748(03)00023-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. O'reilly AO, Khambay BPS, Williamson MS, Filed LM, Wallace BA, Davies TGE: Modelling insecticide-binding sites in the voltage gated sodium channel. Biochem J. 2006, 396: 255-263. 10.1042/BJ20051925.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Davies TG, Filed LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: A comparative study of voltage-gated sodium channel in the insecta: Implication for pyrethroid resistance in Anopheline and other Neopteran species. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007, 16: 361-375.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Verhaeghen K, Bortel WV, Trung HD, Sochantha T, Coosemans M: Absence of knockdown resistance suggests metabolic resistance in the main malaria vectors of the Mekong region. Malar J. 2009, 8: 94-10.1186/1475-2875-8-84.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Verhaeghen K, Bortel WV, Trung HD, Sochantha T, Keokenchanh K, Coosemans M: Knockdown resistance in Anopheles vagus, An. sinensis, An. paraliae and An. peditaeniatus. Parasit Vectors. 2010, 3: 59-10.1186/1756-3305-3-59.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ranson H, Jensen B, Vulule JM, Wang X, Hemingway J, Collins FH: Identification of a point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Kenyan Anopheles gambiae associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Insect Mol Biol. 2000, 9: 491-497. 10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00209.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Reimer LJ, Tripet F, Slotman M, Spielman A, Fondjo E, Lanzaro GC: An unusual distribution of the kdr gene among populations of Anopheles gambiae on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Insect Mol Biol. 2005, 14: 683-688. 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2005.00599.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Reimer L, Fondjo E, Patchoke S, Diallo B, Lee Y, Ng A, Ndjemal HM, Atangana J, Traore SF, Lanzaro G, Cornel AJ: Relationship between kdr mutation and resistance to pyrethroid and DDT insecticides in natural populations of Anopheles gambiae. J Med Entomol. 2008, 45: 260-266. 10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[260:RBKMAR]2.0.CO;2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Etang J, Fondjo E, Chandre F, Morlais I, Brengues C, Nwane P, Chouaibou M, Ndjemai H, Simard F: Short report: First report of knockdown mutations in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae from Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006, 74: 795-797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Baird JK, Sismadi P, Masbar S, Ramzan A, Purnomo BW, Sekartuti , Tjitra E, Rumoko BW: A focus of Endemic Malaria in Central Java. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996, 54: 98-104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Widiarti , Boewono DT, Widyastuti U, Mujiono : Uji biokimia kerentanan vektor malaria terhadap insektisida organofosfat dan karbamat di Provinsi Jawa Tengah dan daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan. 2002, Balai Penelitian Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit, Badan LitbangkesGoogle Scholar
  22. Surono M, Badawi AS, Muir DA, Soedono A, Siran M: Observation on Doubly Resistant Anopheles aconicus Donitz in Java, Indonesia, and on its amenability to treatment with malathion. Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan. 1965, 33: 453-459.Google Scholar
  23. Kirnowardoyo : Status of Anopheles malaria vectors in Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1985, 16: 129-132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kirnowardoyo S, Yoga GP: Entomological investigations of an outbreak of malaria in Chilacap on south coast of central Java, Indonesia during 1985. J Commun Dis. 1990, 19: 121-127.Google Scholar
  25. Barodji , Suwasono H, Sularso T, Sutopo : Uji kepekaan nyamuk vektor dan efikasi insektisida yang digunakan program terhadap nyamuk vektor. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran. 2001, 131: 45-47.Google Scholar
  26. O'Connor CT, Supanto A: Illustrated key to Adult Female of Indonesian Anopheles. Edited by: Atmoesudjono S, Bangs MJ. 1989, Jakarta: Directorate of Communicable Diseases Control, Ministry of Health and US NAMRU-2Google Scholar
  27. De Merida AMP, Palmieri M, Yurrita MM, Molina A, Molina E, Black WC: Mitochondrial DNA variation among Anopheles albimanus populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999, 61: 230-239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kazanidou A, Nikou D, Grigoriou M, Vontas J, Skavdis G: Short report: A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous genotyping of kdr and ace-1 Loci in Anopheles gambiae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009, 80: 236-238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoti SL, Vasuki V, Jambulingam P, Sahu SS: kdr allele-based PCR assay for detection of resistance to DDT in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato Giles population from Malkangiri District, Orissa, India. Curr Sci. 2006, 91: 658-661.Google Scholar
  30. Cooper RD, Edstein MD, Frances SP, Beebe NW: Malaria vectors of Timor Leste. Malar J. 2010, 9: 240-10.1186/1475-2875-9-40.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Astari S, Ahmad I: Insecticide resistance and effect of piperonyl butoxide as a synergist in three strains of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae) on insecticide permethrin, cypermethrin, and D-allethrin. Bulletin Penelitian Kesehatan. 2005, 33: 73-79.Google Scholar
  32. Suwasono H, Boewono DT, Boesri H, Mujiyono , Raharjo : Efikasi permethrin dengan aplikasi ULV terhadap culex quinquefasciatus. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran. 2001, 131-Google Scholar

Copyright

© Syafruddin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Advertisement