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Table 3 Cluster randomized controlled analysis based on the post-intervention cross-sectional survey investigating the consultation process: comparison between 6 intervention and 3 control health facilities.

From: Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

   Interventionhealth facilities
N = 637
Controlhealth facilities
N = 330
Risk ratio(accounting for clustering)
  n* % (95% CI) n* % (95% CI) Risk ratio (95% CI) p-value
Effect of mRDT implementation on anti-malarial treatment
   Patients treated with anti-malarials:       
All patients 618 22% (19-25) 318 60% (54-65) 0.30 (0.14 - 0.70) 0.007
Patients complaining of fever 473 26% (22-30) 253 65% (59-71) 0.31 (0.16 - 0.67) 0.004
Patients not complaining of fever 145 9% (4-14) 65 38% (26-51) 0.23 (0.10 - 0.55) 0.001
Effect of mRDT implementation on adherence to malaria test result
   Patients treated with anti-malarials:       
Patients with a positive malaria test 96 100% (100-100) 155 100% (100-100) 1 N.A
Patients with a negative malaria test 412 7% (5-10) 128 25% (17-33) 0.09 (0.01 - 0.79) 0.03
Effect of mRDT implementation on selection for malaria testing
   Patients tested for malaria:       
All patients 637 82% (79-85) 330 89% (86-92) 0.93 (0.86 - 1.04) 0.2
Patients complaining of fever 487 90% (88-93) 263 95% (93-98) 0.95 (0.91 - 0.99) 0.03
Patients not complaining of fever 150 57% (49-65) 67 64% (52-76) 0.91 (0.69 - 1.26) 0.5
Effect of mRDT implementation on antibiotic treatment
   Patients treated with antibiotics:       
All patients 618 71% (67-74) 318 53% (48-59) 1.34 (1.08 - 1.70) 0.006
Patients complaining of fever 473 71% (67-76) 253 52% (46-58) 1.44 (1.09 - 1.94) 0.008
Patients not complaining of fever 145 68% (61-76) 65 58% (46-71) 1.17 (0.94 - 1.49) 0.2
Patients with a positive malaria test 96 32% (23-42) 155 28% (21-36) 1.14 (0.77 - 1.66) 0.5
Patients with a negative malaria test 412 77% (73-81) 128 74% (67-82) 1.05 (0.91 - 1.26) 0.5
Effect of mRDT implementation on other laboratory tests than malaria
Patient tested for urine infection 637 9% (7-11) 330 11% (8-15) 0.73 (0.34 - 1.58) 0.4
Patient tested for typhoid (Widal) 637 2% (1-3) 330 8% (5-11) 0.29 (0.04 - 1.97) 0.2
Patient tested for stool parasites 637 7% (5-9) 330 5% (3-8) 1.27 (0.50 - 3.29) 0.6
  1. * numbers differ from total sample size because of the variables applying to different subpopulations of patients (and for drugs because a few patients who did not come back from laboratory to get treatment).