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Table 1 Characteristics of 749 children from southern highland Rwanda

From: Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

Parameter Huye communities Sovu Health Centre Kabutare District Hospital P
No. (%) 545 (72.8) 103 (13.8) 101 (13.5)  
Age (months) 31.1 (1-60) 28.3 (1-59) 27.2 (1-60)* 0.03
Proportion girls (%) 45.5 50.5 50.5 0.48
Weight (kg) 11.3 (3.5-18.8) 10.9 (3.8-20.0) 11.0 (3.3-19.0) 0.24
Height (cm)a 80.0 (41-108) 76.1 (42-112)* 78.5 (52-110) 0.02
MUAC (cm)b 13.7 (5.0-18.0) 14.2 (10.5-19.0)* 13.6 (8.0-18.5)† 0.04
Axillary temperature (°C)c 36.7 (36.0-40.6) 37.4 (36.0-40.1)* 37.0 (35.8-39.4)† <0.0001
Fever (%) 3.3 (18/543) 35.0* 26.7* <0.0001
History of fever, last 2 days (%) 9.8 (49/502) 69.4 (68/98)* 47.5 (47/99)*† <0.0001
Hb (g/dL)b 11.3 (1.7-15.3) 11.4 (1.4-16.6) 11.1 (4.3-16.8) 0.89
Anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dL),% 34.1 35.0 32.0 (32/100) 0.89
Severe Anaemia (Hb<7 g/dl),% 1.8 1.9 7.0 (7/100)* 0.01
Primary diagnosis on examinationd     
   Healthy child 25.4 4.3* 1.5* <0.0001
   Gastro-intestinal tract affectione 31.9 25.0 19.4* 0.04
   Respiratory tract infection 7.3 34.3* 26.1* <0.0001
   Malaria (suspected)f 9.7 19.3* 11.9 0.0001
   Severe malnutrition (clinically) 8.2 1.4* 3.7 0.01
   Skin infection 4.6 5.7 4.5 0.67
   Burns, wounds, accidents, etc. 2.1 2.1 14.9*† <0.0001
   Severe anaemia (clinically) 2.4 0.7 3.0 0.41
   Conjunctivitis 1.4 1.4 3.7 0.11
   Disability 1.1 0 5.2*† <0.0001
   Oral problems 0.9 1.4 3.7* 0.02
   Urinary tract infection 0.6 2.9* 2.2 0.02
   Others, missing data 4.4 1.4 0* 0.03
  1. Numerical data are means (range) unless otherwise indicated, and compared by the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis or Mann Whitney U tests. Proportions were compared by χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. MUAC, mid upper arm circumference; Hb, haemoglobin; GMPD, geometric mean parasite density; Malaria, definition a , n = 746; b , n = 748; c , n = 747; d , as judged by study physician, several diagnoses per child possible; No. of diagnoses: community, n = 658; health centre, n = 134; hospital, n = 140. e , includes gastroenteritis, amoebiasis, helminthiasis, and others; f , based on field-based microscopy and clinical judgement. *, difference to Huye communities, P < 0.05; †, difference to Sovu health centre, P < 0.05