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Table 2 Selected socio-economic characteristics in 749 children from southern highland Rwanda

From: Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

Parameter Huye communities Sovu Health Centre Kabutare District Hospital P
No. 545 103 101  
Rural residence (%) 95.1 (507/533) 73.7 (70/95)* 66.0 (66/100) * <0.0001
Monthly family income (RwF)a 9124 (0-100,000) 31,505 (0-300,000) * 28,916 (500-350,000) * <0.0001
Mothers education (%)     
   None 30.4 (165/543) 20.4 (21/103) 14.9 (15/101)  
   Primary 67.0 (364/543) 68.0 (70/103) 69.3 (70/101)  
   Secondary or higher 2.6 (14/543) 11.7 (12/103) * 15.8 (16/101) * <0.0001
Mother's occupation farmer/labourer (%) 98.7 (533/540) 92.2 (95/103) * 78.2 (79/101) *† <0.0001
Father's education (%)     
   None 36.5 (195/534) 19.6 (20/102) 19.8 (20/101)  
   Primary 60.1 (321/534) 67.6 (69/102) 60.4 (61/101)  
   Secondary/tertiary 3.4 (18/534) 12.7 (13/102) * 19.8 (20/101) * <0.0001
Father's occupation (%)     
   Farmer/labourer 86.9 (472/543) 73.3 (74/101) 65.0 (65/100)  
   Else 5.5 (30/543) 25.7 (26/101) 35.0 (35/100)  
   Died/left/prisoner 7.6 (41/543) 1.0 (1/101) * 0 * <0.0001
No. of people/householda 5.5 (2-12) 5.2 (3-12) 5.0 (2-12) * 0.03
No. of siblingsa 2.0 (0-9) 1.8 (0-7) 1.4 (0-6) * 0.002
Household asset present (%)     
   Electricity 1.3 (7/542) 11.7 (12/103) * 23.8 (24/101) *† <0.0001
   Piped water 14.3 (77/540) 6.8 (7/103) * 37.6 (38/101) *† <0.0001
   Radio 43.2 (233/539) 67.0 (69/103) * 77.2 (78/101) * <0.0001
   TV 0.7 (4/541) 5.9 (6/102) * 12.9 (13/101) * <0.0001
   Cupboard 8.9 (48/540) 24.3 (25/103) * 37.6 (38/101) *† <0.0001
   Bicycle 9.1 (49/540) 37.9 (39/103) * 27.7 (28/101) * <0.0001
   Motor-bike 0.6 (3/540) 2.9 (3/102) 1.0 (1/101) 0.07
   Fridge 0 (0/541) 1.0 (1/102) * 2.0 (2/101) * 0.01
   Cattle 13.0 (70/539) 43.7 (45/103) * 20.8 (21/102) *† <0.0001
Health insurance present (%)c 43.0 (234/544) 90.2 (92/102) * 79.3 (80/101) *† <0.0001
Child received any drug in last 2 weeks 8.3 (45/545) 13.7 (14/102) 38.0 (38/100) *† <0.0001
Child used bed net last night (%) 52.7 (286/543) 69.6 (71/102) * 73.3 (74/102) * <0.0001
Chloroquine in plasma (%) 3.7 (20/545) 4.0 (4/101) 4.0 (4/101) 0.98
  1. Numerical data are means (range) unless otherwise indicated, and compared by the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Proportions were compared by χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. a , n = 748; *, difference to Huye communities, P < 0.05; †, difference to Sovu health centre, P < 0.05