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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with P. falciparum infection (PCR)

From: Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

Parameter No. Proportion infected (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR 95%CI P aOR 95%CI P
Group         
   Huye communities 545 16.1 1    1   
   Health Centre 101 21.4 1.41 0.81-2.45 0.20 2.74 1.44-5.19 0.002
   District Hospital 103 14.9 0.91 0.48-1.70 0.74 1.72 0.86-3.44 0.12
Age (months) 749 n.a. 1.02 1.01-1.03 0.001 1.03 1.01-1.04 <0.0001
MUAC (cm) 748 n.a. 0.88 0.79-0.99 0.03 0.83 072-0.95 0.008
Mother's education         
   None 201 20.9 1      
   Primary 504 16.1 0.72 0.47-1.12 0.13    
   Secondary/tertiary 42 4.8 0.19 0.02-0.79 0.01    
Father's education         
   None 235 23.0 1      
   Primary 451 14.2 0.55 0.36-0.85 0.004    
   Secondary/tertiary 51 7.8 0.29 0.07-0.84 0.01    
Father's occupation         
   Farmer/labourer 611 16.9 1      
   Else 91 8.8 0.48 0.21-1.05 0.05    
   Died/left/prisoner 42 31.0 2.21 1.05-4.60 0.02    
Pipe-born water         
   No 622 18.3 1      
   Yes 122 7.4 0.35 0.16-0.75 0.003    
Cupboard         
   No 633 18.3 1    1   
   Yes 111 6.3 0.30 0.11-0.66 0.002 0.37 0.15-0.92 0.03
Radio         
   No 363 23.7 1    1   
   Yes 380 9.5 0.34 0.22-0.52 <0.0001 0.40 0.24-0.66 0.0003
Bicycle         
   No 628 18.5 1    1   
   Yes 116 6.0 0.28 0.11-0.63 0.0009 0.38 0.15-1.0 0.049
Household income         
   >= 5000 RwF (median) 498 14.5 1      
   < 5000 RwF 250 21.2 1.59 1.05-2.40 0.02    
Use of bed net         
   No 315 21.0 1      
   Yes 431 13.7 0.60 0.40-0.90 0.009    
Intake of AL, preceding 2 weeks         
   No 725 15.4 1    1   
   Yes 24 54.4 6.47 2.64-15.9 <0.0001 6.93 2.70-17.78 <0.0001
Chloroquine in plasma         
   No 719 14.5 1    1   
   Yes 28 67.9 12.48 5.19-32.1 <0.0001 17.18 6.84-43.16 <0.0001
  1. n.a., not applicable; MUAC, mid upper arm circumference; RwF, Rwandan Francs; AL, artemether-lumefantrine; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted OR derived from logistic regression including all parameters listed here and following stepwise backward removal of factors not associated in multivariate analysis.