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Table 5 Manifestation of malaria in rural Huye subdistrict

From: Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

   Fever Anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dl) Hb (g/dL)
No. % P aOR (95%CI) % P aOR (95%CI) Mean P
Parasitaemia          
   Absent 484 2.3 (11/482)    28.1    11.5  
   Present 61 11.5 0.002 4.8 (1.8-13.2) 82.0 <0.001 17.5 (8.4-36.4) 9.3 <0.0001
Parasite density          
   None 484 2.3 (11/482)    28.1    11.5  
   < 1000 26 7.7 0.1 3.4 (0.7-16.5) 65.4 0.0002 6.0 (2.5-14.4) 9.9 <0.0001
   1000 < 10000 25 12.0 0.01 4.8 (1.2-18.9) 96.0 <0.0001 105.7 (13.8-812.5) 9.1 <0.0001
   > = 10000 10 20.0 0.005 8.6 (1.6-46.9) 90.0 0.003 40.5 (4.9-336.7) 8.3 <0.0001
P. falciparum infection, PCR          
   Absent 457 2.4 (11/455)    26.7    11.6  
   Present 88 8.0 0.008 3.0 (1.1-8.1) 72.7 <0.0001 10.8 (6.1-18.9) 9.6 <0.0001
Staged infection          
   None 453 2.4 (11/451)    26.5    11.6  
   Submicroscopic 31 0 1 0 (0-∞) 51.6 0.004 4.0 (1.9-8.8) 10.2 0.0009
   Microscopic 61 11.5 0.004 4.4 (1.6-12.2) 82.0 <0.0001 20.3 (9.6-42.6) 9.3 <0.0001
  1. aOR, age-adjusted odds ratio. 95%CI, 95% confidence interval. Hb, haemoglobin concentration. Hb levels are compared by the non-parametric Mann Whitney U test.