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Table 2 Prescribing behaviour of clinicians for parasite-negative patients in different contexts, 2005-2010

From: "Test and treat" or presumptive treatment for malaria in high transmission situations? A reflection on the latest WHO guidelines

% of parasite-negative patients receiving any antimalarial Total N of parasite-neg pts % of parasite-negative patients receiving antibiotics Diagnostic test Country Setting Transmission level % of patients positive for malaria Year of study Ref
4.0% 5162 35.6% RDT Tanzania Rural Health Centres high 51.5% 2008 [28]
9.0% 14777   Microscopy and RDT Uganda District hospital outpatients high 45.0% 2010 [29]
11.7% 700 45.0% RDT Zanzibar Primary Health Care high 30.0% 2005 [21]
27.0% 247 50.0% Microscopy Tanzania Hospital Outpatients high 38.4% 2005 [22]
30.0% 218 50.0% RDT Tanzania Hospital Outpatients high 38.4% 2005 [22]
31.8% 4661   RDT Uganda Primary Health Care Low - high 625% 2007 [39]
35.5% 183   RDT Zambia Outpatients, rural and urban high 44.2% 2006 [30]
36.0% 392   RDT Kenya Government health facilities Low - high 12% 2006 [40]
40.4% 141 55.3% RDT Tanzania Hospital Outpatients high 55.4% 2006 [41]
46.0% 1298 28.8% RDT Ghana Rural health centres high 26.2% 2007-2008 [20]
49.5% 1013 35.0% RDT Ghana Rural health centres high 37.7% 2007-2008 [20]
49.5% 1325 28.6% Microscopy Ghana Rural health centres high 26.9% 2007-2008 [20]
54.6% 416 50.0% Microscopy Tanzania Hospital Outpatients low 0.4% 2005 [22]
58.0% 401 50.0% RDT Tanzania Hospital Outpatients low 0.4% 2005 [22]
58.4% 77   Microscopy Zambia Outpatients, rural and urban high 45.4% 2006 [30]
61.3% 68 87.1% RDT/microscopy Kenya Outpatients > = 5 years high 52.7% 2006 [42]
63.0% 367 50.0% Microscopy Tanzania Hospital Outpatients low-moderate 8.3% 2005 [22]
63.0% 386 50.0% RDT Tanzania Hospital Outpatients low-moderate 8.3% 2005 [22]
75.0% 52 84.6% RDT/microscopy Kenya Outpatients < 5 yrs high 50.0% 2006 [42]
79.8% 287 54.7% RDT Burkina Faso Primary care, rural, dry season low 28.2% 2006 [10]
82.6% 206 59.9% RDT Burkina Faso Primary care, rural, rainy season high 68.2% 2006 [10]