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Table 3 Predictors of a risk of obtaining a false negative RDT results among individuals with positive blood smears as determinants of RDT sensitivity in the longitudinal study and CSS in Korogwe and Muheza districts

From: Accuracy of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in community studies and their impact on treatment of malaria in an area with declining malaria burden in north-eastern Tanzania

  Longitudinal study CSS
Variable/covariate Sensitivity (%) Unadjusted
OR(p-value)
Adjusted
OR(p-value)
Sensitivity (%) Unadjusted
OR(p-value)
Adjusted
OR(p-value)
RDT type       
Paracheck 1422/1616(88.0) reference reference 475/639(74.3) reference reference
Parahit 1919/2152(89.2) 0.89(0.259) 1.03(0.896) 188/406(46.3) 3.36(< 0.001) 8.63(< 0.001)
Age group       
< 5 years 761/845(90.1) reference reference 130/184(70.7) reference reference
≥5 years 2580/2923(88.3) 1.20(0.148) 0.65(0.005) 533/861(61.9) 1.48(0.026) 0.98(0.682)
Fever (axillary temperature ≥37.5°C)       
No fever 1514/1787(84.7) reference reference 596/969(61.5) reference reference
With fever 1826/1980(92.2) 0.47(< 0.001) 0.63(< 0.001) 60/65(92.3) 0.13(< 0.001) 0.32(0.027)
Pf Density(asexual parasites/μl)       
≥4001 2274/2355(96.6) reference reference 167/187(89.3) reference reference
2001-4000 162/177(91.5) 2.60(0.001) 2.465(0.001) 54/59(91.5) 0.77(0.623) 0.84(0.752)
801-2000 232/262(88.6) 3.63(< 0.001) 3.73(< 0.001) 105/128(82.0) 1.83(0.067) 1.77(0.104)
201-800 359/429(83.7) 5.47(< 0.001) 5.21(< 0.001) 188/248(75.8) 2.66(< 0.001) 2.00(< 0.001)
< 200 314/545(57.6) 20.65(< 0.001) 21.17(< 0.001) 149/423(35.2) 15.36(< 0.001) 16.60(< 0.001)
Year*       
2007 1912/2132(89.7) reference reference 147/201(74.1) reference reference
2008 1141/1272(89.7) 0.99(0.985) 1.19(0.510) 326/438(74.4) 0.98(0.936) 1.85(0.013)
2009 192/247(77.7) 2.45(< 0.001) 2.63(< 0.001) 122/246(49.6) 2.91(< 0.001) 0,72(0.198)
2010 96/117(82.1) 1.90(0.011) 3.91(< 0.001) 66/160(41.3) 4.08(< 0.001) 0.99(0.998)
Location**       
Highland 1084/1199(90.4) reference reference 22/51(43.1) reference reference
Lowland 2257/2569(87.9) 1.20(0.026) 1.10(0.441) 641/994(64.5) 0.41(0.003) 0.19(< 0.001)
  1. RDT = malaria rapid diagnostic tests, CSS = cross-sectional surveys, OR = odds ratio, Pf = Plasmodium falciparum
  2. *Year of study was used to represent malaria parasite prevalence in both studies.
  3. **Geographical location of the village based on altitude indicating level of malaria transmission