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Table 2 Analysis of household attributes associated with malaria parasitaemia

From: Malaria epidemiology in the Ahafo area of Ghana

Attribute n/N (%) ORβ, (95% CI) p ORγ, (95% CI) p
   Unadjusted   Adjusted  
Gender of household head      
Female 176/796 (22.1) 1 - 1 -
Male 188/827 (22.7) 1.04 (0.82 - 1.31) 0.764 0.99 (0.77 - 1.27) 0.954
Age group of household head      
15 - 29 39/180 (21.7) 1 - 1 -
30 - 39 74/447 (16.6) 0.71 (0.46 - 1.10) 0.003* 0.75 (0.47 - 1.20) 0.042*
40 - 49 107/428 (25.0) 1.21 (0.79 - 1.83)   1.26 (0.79 - 2.03)  
50 - 59 65/225 (28.9) 1.47 (0.93 - 2.32)   1.38 (0.82 - 2.34)  
60+ 71/317 (22.4) 1.04 (0.67 - 1.62)   1.12 (0.66 - 1.91)  
Household head educational level      
None 164/586 (28.0) 1 - 1 -
Primary 42/200 (21.0) 0.68 (0.47 - 1.01) < 0.001* 0.78 (0.51 - 1.18) 0.499*
Middle/JHS 125/631 (19.8) 0.64 (0.49 - 0.83)   0.80 (0.58 - 1.10)  
> middle/JHS 31/207 (15.0) 0.45 (0.30 - 0.69)   0.86 (0.52 - 1.41)  
Household socioeconomic status      
Poorest 103/348 (29.6) 1 - 1 -
Second 81/323 (25.1) 0.80 (0.57 - 1.12) < 0.001* 0.88 (0.60 - 1.27) 0.047*
Third 83/334 (24.9) 0.79 (0.56 - 1.1)   0.91 (0.61 - 1.34)  
Fourth 52/327 (15.9) 0.45 (0.31 - 0.65)   0.59 (0.38 - 0.92)  
Least poor 43/296 (14.5) 0.40 (0.27 - 0.60)   0.56 (0.35 - 0.91)  
Member of Health Insurance      
No 250/927 (27.0) 1 - 1 -
Yes 112/701 (16.0) 0.51 (0.40 - 0.66) < 0.001 0. 60 (0.45 - 0.80) 0.001
Household ITN ownership      
No 124/498 (24.9) 1 - 1 -
Yes 232/1107 (21.0) 0.80 (0.62 - 1.03) 0.079 0.81 (0.62 - 1.07) 0.147
Household size      
≤ 6 130/696 (18.7) 1 - 1 -
> 6 232/932 (24.9) 1.44 (1.13 - 1.84) 0.003 1.15 (0.85 - 1.54) 0.364
Area of residence      
Asutifi impact 50/236 (21.2) 1 - 1 -
Asutifi non impact 34/148 (23.0) 1.11 (0.68 - 1.82) < 0.001* 0.85 (0.49 - 1.47) 0.065*
Tano N/S impact 94/575 (16.4) 0.73 (0.50 - 1.07)   0.92 (0.60 - 1.40)  
Tano N/S non impact 103/358 (28.8) 1.50 (1.02 - 2.21)   1.43 (0.93 - 2.20)  
Techiman 81/311 (26.1) 1.31 (0.88 - 2.0)   1.27 (0.79 - 2.02)  
  1. β-Univariate logistic regression odds ratio (OR); γ-multivariate logistic regression odds ratio (OR); CI-confidence interval; * -Likelihood ratio p-values; JHS-Junior High School