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Table 3 Alternative anti-malarial prescribing at facilities with and without ACT stock

From: Taking stock: provider prescribing practices in the presence and absence of ACT stock

Country, year of study Percentage of patients diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria/fever and prescribed alternative anti-malarials to ACT
  All facilities, % (n) Facilities with ACT stock, %(n) No ACT stock % differencea (95% Confidence Intervalb; p-value)
Kenya, 2006 [19] AQ AQ AQ AQ
  38.6%
(363/940)
36.7%
(318/866)
60.8%
(45/74)
-24.1%
(-36.4%, -11.8%; p < 0.001)
  SP SP SP SP
  4.4%
(41/940)
3.2%
(28/866)
17.6%
(13/74)
-14.4%
(-23.8%, 4.8%; p < 0.001)
  AQ+SP AQ+SP AQ+SP AQ+SP
  2.8%
(26/940)
3%
(26/866)
0/74 3%
  Other AM c Other AM c Other AM c Other AM c
  3.3% (31/940) 3.3% (29/866) 2.7% (2/74) 0.6%
(0.3%, 11%; p = 1.0)
  QN QN QN QN
  1.5%
(14/940)
1.5%
(13/866)
1.4%
(1/74)
0.1%
(0.16%, 46.6%; p = 1.0)
Kenya, 2010 [14]e AL+QN AL+QN AL+QN AL+QN
  <5 yrs: 5.8%
(55/950)
5 yrs: 2.6%
(31/1175)
<5 yrs: 6%
(55/913)
5 yrs: 2.8%
(31/1112)
<5 yrs: 0/37
5 yrs: 0/63
<5 yrs: 6%
5 yrs: 2.8%
  SP SP SP SP
  2.6%
(56/2125)
1.9%
(38/2025)
18%
(18/100)
-16.1%(-24.2%,
8%; p < 0.001)
  QN QN QN QN
  <5 yrs: 2.6%
(25/950)
5 yrs: 1.4%
(16/1175)
<5 yrs: 2.6%
(24/913)
5 yrs: 1.3%
(14/1112)
<5 yrs: 2.7%
(1/37)
5 yrs: 3.2%
(2/63)
<5 yrs:-0.1%
(-0.1%, 41.1%; p = 1.0)
5 yrs: -1.9%
(-3.6%, .09%; p = 0.2)
Uganda, 2007 [18] CQ+SP CQ+SP CQ+SP CQ+SP
  <5 yrs: 7.6%
(35/461)
≥ 5 yrs: 18%
(133/739)
< 5 yrs: 5.1%
(22/428)
≥ 5 yrs: 14.8%
(95/644)
< 5 yrs: 39.4%
(13/33)
≥ 5 yrs: 40.0%
(38/95)
< 5 yrs: -34.3%
(-81.4%, -45.8%;
p < 0.001)
≥ 5 yrs: -25.2%
(-36.1%, -14.4%;
p < 0.001)
  CQ CQ CQ CQ
  < 5 yrs: 2.2%
(10/461)
≥ 5 yrs: 3%
(22/739)
< 5 yrs: 2.1%
(9/428)
≥ 5 yrs: 2.5%
(16/644)
< 5 yrs: 3%
(1/33)
≥ 5 yrs: 6.3%
(6/95)
< 5 yrs: -0.9%
(-31.1%, 0.1%;
p = 0.5)
≥ 5 yrs: -3.8%
(-9.5%, 1.8%;
p = 0.08)
  SP SP SP SP
  < 5 yrs: 0.4%
(2/461)
≥ 5 yrs: 1.0%
(7/739)
< 5 yrs: 0.5%
(2/428)
≥ 5 yrs: 0.9%
(6/644)
< 5 yrs: 0 (0/33)
≥ 5 yrs: 1.0% (1/95)
< 5 yrs: 0.5%
≥ 5 yrs: -0.1%
(0.1%, 41.1%; p = 1)
  QN QN QN QN
  < 5 yrs: 5.9% (27/461)
≥ 5 yrs: 2.8% (21/739)
< 5 yrs: 5.1% (22/428)
≥ 5 yrs: 2.5% (16/644)
< 5 yrs: 15.2% (5/33)
≥ 5 yrs: 5.3% (5/95)
< 5 yrs: -10.1%
(-24.1%, 4%; p = 0.05)
≥ 5 yrs: -2.8%
(-8%, 2.5%; p = 0.2)
  Other AM d Other AM d Other AM d Other AM d
  < 5 yrs: 3.5% (16/461)
≥ 5 yrs: 1.9% (14/739)
< 5 yrs: 3.5% (15/428)
≥ 5 yrs: 1.9% (12/644)
< 5 yrs: 3.0% (1/33)
≥ 5 yrs: 2.1% (2/95)
< 5 yrs: 0.5%
(0.16%,48.9%; p = 1.0)
≥ 5 yrs: -0.2%
(0.19%, 8.2%; p = 0.7)
Zambia, 2004 [16] SP SP SP SP
  ≥ 10 kg: 67.5% (266/394) ≥ 10 kg: 53.7% (103/192) ≥ 10 kg: 80.7% (163/202) ≥ 10 kg: -27%
(-36.5%, -17.6%; p < 0.001)
  QN QN QN QN
  ≥ 10 kg: 4.8% (19/394) ≥ 10 kg: 3.1% (6/192) ≥ 10 kg: 6.4% (13/202) ≥ 10 kg: -3.3%
(-8%, 1.4%; p = 0.2)
Zambia, 2006 [17] SP SP SP SP
  5-9 kg: 38.8% (214/552)
≥ 10 kg: 27.6% (151/547)
5-9 kg: 21.9% (77/351)
≥ 10 kg: 13.6% (51/374)
5-9 kg: 68.2% (137/201)
≥ 10 kg: 57.8% (100/173)
5-9 kg: -46.3%
(-54.4%, -38.1%; p < 0.001)
10 kg: -44.2%
(-52.7%, -35.6%; p < 0.001)
  QN QN QN QN
  5-9 kg: 4.7% (26/552)
≥ 10 kg: 7.0% (38/547)
5-9 kg: 2.3% (8/351)
≥ 10 kg: 3.7% (14/374)
5-9 kg: 9.0% (18/201)
≥ 10 kg: 13.9% (24/173)
5-9 kg:-6.7%
(-11.3%, -2,%; p < 0.001)
≥ 10 kg:-10.2%
(-16.1%, -4.2%; p < 0.001)
Zambia, 2006 [15]f, g SP SP SP SP
  32.8%
(479/1457)
20.4%
(212/1040)
64%
(267/417)
-43.6%
(-41.3%, -31.4%; p < 0.001)
  QN QN QN QN
  3.7%
(54/1457)
3.7%
(28/1040)
6.2%
(26/417)
-2.5%
(-5.3%, -0.7%; p = 0.003)
  1. N/A Not applicable
  2. a Difference is the proportion of patients who received alternative anti-malarials at facilities with ACT stock minus the proportion of patients who received alternative anti-malarials at facilities with no ACT stock
  3. b Confidence interval not adjusted for clustering at facility level
  4. cOther AM = Other Anti-malarial, includes DHA, AQ+QN, SP+QN, AL+QN, AQ+SP+QN
  5. dOther AM = Other Anti-malarial, includes AQ+SP, AL+SP, AL+SP+CQ, QN+SP, AL+QN, AL+CQ
  6. e Results are prescribing practices for febrile patients,
  7. f Results based on all age groups,
  8. g Analysis restricted to facilities where diagnositcs were available, test negative results excluded from analysis