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Table 1 Sensitivity of different methods of parasite detection used in studies of mixed infection

From: A review of mixed malaria species infections in anopheline mosquitoes

  Detection method References Species Gold standard Sensitivity Specificity Quoted lower limit
1 CS-ELISA Wirtz et al.,1985 [17] PV-VK210 PV-VK247     125-250 sporozoites per 30 μL mosquito extract
2 CS-ELISA Wirtz et al.,1987 [18] PF     100 sporozoites per mosquito
3 CS-ELISA Collins et al.,1988 [19] PM     25-50 sporozoites per mosquito
4 PCR on pfdhfr-ts Harada et al.,2000 [20] PF     4 pg of DNA (100 P/μL)
5 PCR on ssrRNA Snounou et al.,1993 [21, 22] PF, PV, PM, PO     10 P/μL
6 Semi-nested PCR on ssrRNA Larduex et al.,2008 [23] PF, PV, PM, PO     3 sporozoites (0.06 pg of DNA)
   Rubio et al.,1999 and 2002 [24, 25]   Thick- thin films 100% 67% 0.1 P/μL
7 PCR-RFLP on Cyt B gene Hasan et al,2009 [26] PF, PV-VK210, PV-VK247     0.2 pg of DNA
8 Real-time PCR ssrRNA Mangold et al.,2005 [27] PF, PV, PM, PO Microscopy analysis PF 94.1% PV100% PO 100% PF100% PV99.1% PO100% 0.01-0.02% parasitaemia
9 RT-PCR on pfg377 and pfs16 mRNA Nakazawa et al.,2009 [28] PF     1 parasite per salivary gland
10 Real-time PCR 18S rRNA Perandin et al.,2004 [29] PF, PV, PO Nested-PCR 100% 100% PF 0.7P/μL, PV 4P/μL, PO 1.5P/μL
11 Dipstick Bangs et al.,2002 [30] PF, PV-VK210, PV-VK247 CS-ELISA 100% 97% -
12 Vectest Dipstick Ryan et al.,2002 [31] PF, PV-VK210, PV-VK247 CS-ELISA 92% 98.10% -
13 Fluorescein-labelled DNA probe Lulu et al.,1997 [32] PF     500 sporozoites
14 Microtiter plate hybridization Kimura et al.,1997 [33] Tangin et al.,2008 [34] PF, PV, PM, PO     0.0001-0.0005% parasitaemia
  1. P: malaria parasite, CS: circumsporozoite protein, pfdhfr-ts: Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase. PF: Plasmodium falciparum, PV: Plasmodium vivax, PO: Plasmodium ovale, PM: Plasmodium malariae.