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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population and households, by study year

From: Changing individual-level risk factors for malaria with declining transmission in southern Zambia: a cross-sectional study

  2007 2008 2009
Participants N = 330 N = 435 N = 716
   Age: Median (IQR) 12.8 (5.2, 31.8) 14.3 (6.4, 34.3) 13.9 (6.4, 31.5)
0-5 76 (23.0) 84 (19.4) 142 (19.8)
5-10 67 (20.3) 76 (17.6) 124 (17.3)
10-20 63 (19.1) 113 (26.1) 187 (26.1)
20-30 37 (11.2) 36 (8.3) 74 (10.3)
30-40 34 (10.3) 35 (8.1) 63 (8.8)
40-50 23 (7.0) 38 (8.8) 50 (7.0)
50-60 8 (2.4) 25 (5.8) 25 (2.5)
≥ 60 22 (6.7) 26 (6.0) 51 (7.1)
   Male: N (%) 153 (46.4) 207 (47.6) 342 (47.8)
   Education: N (%)a    
< Grade 1 3 (2.3) 7 (3.9) 13 (4.4)
Grade 1-6 29 (22.3) 64 (35.2) 82 (27.6)
Grade 7-12 97 (74.6) 110 (60.4) 197 (66.3)
University/certificate/technical training 1 (0.8) 1 (0.6) 5 (1.7)
Households N = 52 N = 76 N = 119
   Source of water: N (%)    
Private well or pump 5 (9.6) 1 (1.3) 2 (1.7)
Public well or pump 30 (57.7) 39 (51.3) 73 (61.3)
Public stand pipe 0 (0.0) 2 (2.6) 1 (0.8)
Unprotected well 3 (5.8) 12 (15.8) 22 (18.5)
River or stream 14 (26.9) 22 (29.0) 21 (17.7)
   Toilet: N (%)    
Pit latrine 24 (46.2) 37 (48.7) 98 (82.4)
No facility/bush/field 27 (51.9) 39 (51.3) 21 (17.6)
Other 1 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
   Source of light: N (%)    
Candle 4 (7.7) 3 (4.0) 24 (20.2)
Lantern 45 (86.5) 67 (88.2) 77 (64.7)
Other 3 (5.8) 6 (7.9) 18 (15.1)
   Material of floor: N (%)    
Cement 18 (34.6) 11 (14.5) 29 (24.4)
Earth 34 (65.4) 65 (85.5) 90 (75.6)
   Material of walls: N (%)    
Fired brick/cement 44 (84.6) 69 (90.8) 106 (89.1)
Pole and mud/grass 1 (1.9) 3 (4.0) 9 (7.5)
Unfired bricks 7 (13.5) 4 (5.3) 4 (3.4)
   Material of roof: N (%)    
Iron sheets/corrugated tin 12 (23.1) 19 (25.0) 34 (28.6)
Pole and grass 36 (69.2) 56 (73.4) 82 (68.9)
Other 4 (7.7) 1 (1.3) 3 (2.5)
  1. a among participants 18 years of age or older