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Table 2 General knowledge of malaria symptoms, causes and prevention among participants 18 years or older, by study year

From: Changing individual-level risk factors for malaria with declining transmission in southern Zambia: a cross-sectional study

  2007
N = 130
2008
N = 182
2009
N = 297
Symptoms of malaria N (%) N (%) N (%)
   Fever 71 (54.6) 98 (53.9) 175 (58.9)
   Headache 45 (34.6) 101 (55.5) 175 (58.9)
   Chills 71 (54.6) 114 (62.6) 197 (66.3)
   Vomiting 35 (26.9) 73 (40.1) 111 (37.4)
   Diarrhoea 21 (16.2) 40 (22.0) 78 (26.3)
   Body ache/pain 14 (10.8) 18 (9.9) 43 (14.5)
   Cough 4 (3.1) 27 (14.8) 33 (11.1)
   Weakness/fatigue 11 (8.5) 38 (20.9) 46 (15.5)
   Flu-like symptoms 1 (0.8) 7 (3.9) 10 (3.4)
   Thirsty 4 (3.1) 8 (4.4) 16 (5.4)
   Loss of appetite 14 (10.8) 10 (5.5) 25 (8.4)
   Yellow eyes/skin 24 (18.5) 19 (10.4) 17 (5.7)
   Other 11 (8.5) 13 (7.1) 10 (3.4)
   Do not know 14 (10.8) 3 (1.7) 0 (0.0)
Causes of malaria    
   Mosquito bites 92 (70.8) 152 (83.5) 258 (86.9)
   Breathing bad air 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
   Eating bad food 8 (6.2) 8 (4.4) 16 (5.4)
   Eating fresh maize 0 (0.0) 6 (3.3) 19 (6.4)
   Eating fresh fruits 3 (2.3) 10 (5.5) 16 (5.4)
   Eating sugar cane 0 (0.0) 5 (2.8) 14 (4.7)
   Drinking bad water 13 (10.0) 18 (9.9) 50 (16.8)
   Dirty surroundings 2 (1.5) 12 (6.6) 25 (8.4)
   Flies 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.7)
   Other 2 (1.5) 3 (1.7) 7 (2.4)
   Do not know 33 (25.4) 24 (13.2) 21 (7.1)
Preventive measures against malaria    
   Burn a fire in the house 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
   Charms 4 (3.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
   Do not go outside at certain times of day 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
   Have screens on the windows 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
   Keep skin covered 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3)
   Sleep under a mosquito net 52 (40.0) 120 (65.9) 227 (76.4)
   Spray insecticide inside the house 3 (2.3) 7 (3.9) 5 (1.7)
   Take medicine to prevent malaria 8 (6.2) 16 (8.8) 31 (10.4)
   Wear insect repellent 0 (0.0) 2 (1.1) 3 (1.0)
   Drinking and eating clean water and food 7 (5.4) 12 (6.6) 31 (10.4)
   Bury mosquito breeding sites 13 (10.0) 20 (11.0) 20 (6.7)
   Keep surroundings clean 11 (8.5) 49 (26.9) 74 (24.9)
   Seek early treatment 8 (6.2) 20 (11.0) 39 (13.1)
   Other 3 (2.3) 5 (2.8) 11 (3.7)
   Do not know 55 (42.3) 30 (16.5) 22 (7.4)