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Table 3 Use of insecticide treated bed nets, by study years

From: Changing individual-level risk factors for malaria with declining transmission in southern Zambia: a cross-sectional study

  2007 2008 2009
All participants N = 330 N = 435 N = 716
   Lives in a households with ≥ 1 bed net 135 (40.9) 335 (77.0) 456 (63.7)
1 bed net 92 (27.9) 305 (70.1) 408 (57.0)
2 bed nets 25 (7.6) 25 (5.8) 37 (5.2)
3 bed nets 9 (2.7) 5 (1.2) 8 (1.1)
≥ 4 bed nets 9 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.4)
   Reasons for not owning a bed net N = 195 N = 100 N = 260
Cost 135 (69.2) 72 (72.0) 237 (91.2)
Bed nets not available 44 (22.6) 3 (3.0) 9 (3.5)
No knowledge of where to buy one 3 (1.5) 7 (7.0) 3 (1.2)
Not enough for everyone 2 (1.0) 11 (11.0) 0 (0.0)
Not enough space under the bed net 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
No mosquitoes around 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.8)
Frequent changes in sleeping places 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.5)
Too hot under the bed net 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0)
Belief that bed nets do not protect against mosquitoes 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 2 (0.8)
Among participants with a bed net N = 135 N = 335 N = 456
   Sleeps under the bed net 61 (45.2) 189 (56.4) 263 (57.7)
Duration of ownership < 2 years 25 (41.0) 175 (92.6) 207 (78.7)
History of treating bed net 13 (21.3) 49 (25.9) 48 (18.3)
   Reasons for not sleeping under a bed net N = 74 N = 146 N = 193
No mosquitoes around 51 (68.9) 55 (37.7) 89 (46.1)
Inability to hang the bed net/sleeping outside 3 (4.1) 111 (76.0) 9 (4.7)
Bed net is old/dirty/needs to be re-treated 4 (5.4) 21 (14.4) 25 (13.0)
Frequent changes in sleeping places 8 (10.8) 17 (11.6) 18 (9.3)
Too hot under the bed net 4 (5.4) 37 (25.3) 29 (15.0)
Not enough space under the bed net 5 (6.8) 0 (0.0) 8 (4.2)
Not the rainy season 1 (1.4) 7 (4.8) 0 (0.0)
Bed net is itchy 0 (0.0) 5 (3.4) 0 (0.0)
Belief that bed nets do not protect against mosquitoes 0 (0.0) 7 (4.8) 11 (5.7)