Frequency of reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa per year 1988-2010, for all anti-malarials (black), non-artemisinin derivatives (blue) and artemisinin derivative montherapies and ACTs (red). Each poor quality medicine type (by API or brand name per country per report) included. Reports of more than one poor quality medicine of the same brand name/API/formulation per paper classed as one report. The fall in frequency in 2010 is probably an artifact of investigations-up to October 2011 there have already been 64 reports of poor quality anti-malarial types in Africa. See Additional file 1.