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Table 2 Descriptive statistics on healthcare providers' individual characteristics, working context, and views about and use of research evidence

From: Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania

Factor All
N = 372
Ghana
N = 107
Laos
N = 136
Senegal
N = 51
Tanzania
N = 75
Individual characteristics
Age, yr, mean 42.0 43.0 40.7 38.9 45.5
Sex, male 55.9 59.8 41.2 45.1 84.9
Type of health care provider      
General practitioner 67.2% 53.8% 86.6% 29.4% 77.8%
Specialist physician 5.8% 10.4% 4.5% 5.9% 1.4%
Nurse 15.7% 31.1% 2.2% 37.3% 2.8%
Health worker 6.6% 2.8% 5.2% 17.6% 6.9%
Other 4.7% 1.9% 1.5% 9.8% 11.1%
Allocation of time, % of time†
Clinical practice 59.0% 71.0% 65.0% 63.6% 28.4%
Research 7.7% 7.6% 6.4% 15.8% 4.8%
Teaching 10.3% 10.2% 9.5% 6.6% 14.4%
Administration 18.2% 9.2% 12.8% 8.5% 47.2%
Master's or doctorate degree 15.1% 15.0% 8.1% 7.8% 32.1%
Training (since completed last degree) in:      
Acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library 8.3% 12.1% 4.4% 4.1% 19.4%
Critically appraising systematic reviews 10.8% 16.8% 3.7% 6.3% 33.3%
Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) 34.9% 43.3% 14.0% 39.2% 72.9%
Prevention of malaria 44.6% 39.2% 30.9% 74.5% 65.1%
Easy access to personal computer with CD ROM 24.3% 22.6% 7.5% 31.4% 56.3%
Easy access to Internet 21.7% 21.8% 6.7% 43.1% 35.9%
Able to read and write English well or very well 63.3% 97.2% 19.3% 56.9% 100%
Working context§      
Operating authority of facility or practice
Government 86.3% 59.8% 100% 92.2% 95.8%
Nongovernmental organization 14.5% 26.2% 4.4% 7.8% 21.1%
For-profit organization 9.6% 23.4% 0.7% 0% 12.7%
Type of facility or practice
Solo or individual practice 13.7% 13.1% 9.6% 15.7% 21.4%
Group practice 33.2% 22.4% 53.7% 0% 34.3%
Hospital 81.6% 79.4% 93.4% 51.0% 84.3%
Community health centre 25.0% 20.6% 0.7% 56.9% 55.7%
Location of facility or practice
Urban 16.0% 4.7% 2.4% 31.4% 44.6%
Rural 55.7% 69.8% 60.3% 52.9% 29.7%
Mixed 40.6% 32.1% 45.2% 23.5% 56.8%
Facility had insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) available 58.5% 64.5% 38.5% 54.9% 89.0%
Views and activities related to improving clinical practice
Research performed in their own country is of above average or excellent quality 47.8% 57.3% 28.2% 39.2% 75.3%
Trust somewhat or completely a systematic review of randomized controlled double-blind trials 55.5% 58.7% 48.1% 47.1% 72.6%
Working with researchers or research groups to improve clinical practice or the quality of working life 43.9% 40.6% 41.0% 27.5% 66.2%
Higher quality of available research is important or very important to improve their work 92.6% 86.0% 99.3% 98.0% 86.3%
Used or read particular sources of evidence
Clinical practice guidelines, protocols or decision-support tools 59.4% 65.7% 47.7% 51.0% 80.0%
Cochrane Library 11.1% 20.4% 6.7% 5.9% 9.5%
Scientific journals from high-income countries 35.9% 55.9% 15.6% 29.4% 50.0%
Scientific journals from own country 55.1% 53.6% 64.9% 17.6% 67.2%
Summaries of articles, reports, and reviews from public and not-for-profit health organizations 56.9% 64.1% 36.4% 78.4% 69.2%
  1. §May not add to 100% because health care providers may practise in more than one setting.
  2. †May not add to 100% because the allocation of time reported by a small number of respondents did not add to 100%