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Table 2 The proportion of human contact with mosquito bites occurring indoors (πi) in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania during 1997, 2004 and 2009.

From: Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania

Year Proportion ± s.e. n/Na Odds ratio [95% CI] p value
Anopheles gambiae s.l.   
   1997b 0.997 ± 0.002 366/367 1.00 NA
   2004 0.926 ± 0.004 3,622/3,912 0.928 [0.797 - 1.080] 0.337
   2009 0.820 ± 0.008 1,964/2,395 0.822 [0.703 - 0.962] 0.0143
   Overall influence of Year 5,952/6,674 NA 0.0019
Anopheles funestus    
   1997b 1.000 ± 0.000 210/210 1.00 NA
   2004 0.761 ± 0.063 35/46 0.761 [0.471 - 1.229] 0.264
   2009 0.505 ± 0.048 54/107 0.504 [0.345 - 0.737] 0.0004
   Overall influence of Year 299/363 NA 0.0014
  1. Proportions for each survey period are compared using GLMMs with a binomial distribution, a categorical explanatory variable for study year and a random factor for date.
  2. a Calculated as: (I21→05 hrs)/(I21→05 hrs + O18,19,20,06 hrs)
  3. b Formed reference category for GLMM