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Table 1 Univariate analysis of variables examined as potential risk factors for malaria in children

From: Malaria risk factors in north-east Tanzania

Variable n Cases (%) OR (95% CI)* p-value
Individual     
   Age group     
6 months-4 years 518 48 (9.3) 1.0 -
5-13 years 919 160 (17.4) 2.06 (1.26-3.38) 0.015
   Sex     
Male 727 123 (16.9) 1.0 -
Female 702 85 (12.1) 0.68 (0.44-1.05) 0.068
   Body mass index (BMI) (per additional unit) 1436 208 (14.5) 0.97 (0.90-1.05) 0.40
   Socioeconomic status (per additional point score) 1437 208 (14.5) 0.87 (0.72-1.06) 0.12
   Number of co-residents (per additional resident) 1432 207 (14.5) 1.05 (0.94-1.17) 0.26
Prevention behaviour     
   Mosquito Net use     
None 556 109 (19.6) 1.0 -
Untreated mosquito net 59 8 (13.6) 0.64 (0.22-1.88) 0.32
Insecticide-treated mosquito net 659 70 (10.6) 0.49 (0.30-0.78) 0.013
   Frequency of net use     
Every night - seasonal 235 29 (12.3) 1.0 -
Every night - year round 625 66 (10.6) 0.84 (0.42-1.68) 0.52
   Number of holes in net (per additional hole) 875 98 (11.2) 0.98 (0.91-1.06) 0.51
   Proximity of penned livestock     
No livestock penned < 20 m from house 835 131 (15.7) 1.0 -
Livestock penned < 20 m from house 594 77 (13.0) 0.80 (0.50-1.27) 0.25
House related     
   Elevation 1393 204 (14.6) 1.00 (1.00-1.01) 0.28
   Wall material     
Cement 327 41 (12.5) 1.0 -
Mud 1089 161 (14.8) 1.21 (0.68-2.14) 0.41
Wood 9 3 (33.3) 3.49 (0.31-39.29) 0.23
Other 5 1 (20) 1.74 (0.12-24.55) 0.59
   Roof material     
Metal sheet 722 100 (13.9) 1.0 -
Grass 75 6 (8.0) 0.54 (0.14-2.06) 0.27
Coconut palm 588 97 (16.5) 1.23 (0.77-1.97) 0.29
Other 42 1 (2.4) 0.15 (0.01-2.52) 0.14
   Eaves     
Closed 164 16 (9.8) 1.0 -
Open 1261 189 (15.0) 1.63 (0.73-3.63) 0.17
   House size (m2) 1428 207 (14.5) 0.99 (0.99-1.00) 0.65
   Number of rooms (per additional room) 1429 208 (14.6) 0.87 (0.68-1.11) 0.19
   Number of windows (per additional window) 1426 207 (14.5) 0.86 (0.75-0.99) 0.038
   Number of doors (per additional door) 1430 208 (14.5) 0.98 (0.66-1.46) 0.90
  1. * Robust confidence intervals adjusted for within village and within household clustering of cases