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Table 2 Some common ingredients in natural repellents that may be hazardous. Reproduced with permission from [63]

From: Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing

Common Name Scientific Name Safe Concentration Hazard
Anise Pimpinella anisum 3.6% Based on 0.11% methyl eugenol; carcinogen
Basil Ocimum sp 0.07% Based on 6% methyl eugenol; carcinogen
Bergamot Citrus aurantium bergamia 0.4% Sensitising and phototoxic; skin irritant
Cajeput Melaleuca alternifolia 0.004% Based on 97% methyl eugenol; carcinogen
Cedar Chamaecyparis nootkatensis 1% Likely allergenic contaminants if nootkatone not 98% pure
Cassia Cinnamonium cassia 0.2% or 9% Sensitising skin irritant
Citronella Cymbopogon nardus 2% Safety is controversial; based on 0.2% methyl eugenol or 1.3% citral; sensitising skin irritant
Citronella (Java) Cymbopogon winterianius 2% Based on 0.2% methyl eugenol; carcinogen
Citrus oils Citrus sp 16-25% Based on 0.005%-0.0025% bergapten; phototoxic skin irritant
Clove Syzyguim aromaticum 0.5% Based on 92% eugenol; sensitising skin irritant
Fever tea, lemon bush Lippia javanica 2% Based on 5% citral in related species; sensitising skin irritant
Geranium Pelargonium graveolens 6% Based on 1.5% citral; sensitising skin irritant
Ginger Zingiber sp 12% Based on 0.8% citral; sensitising skin irritant
Huon oil, Macquarie pine Langarostrobus franklini 0.004% Based on 98% methyl eugenol; carcinogen
Lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus 0.1% Based on 90% citral; sensitising skin irritant
Lime Citrus aurantifolia 0.7% Phototoxic skin irritant
Litsea Litsea cubeba 0.1% Based on 78% citral; sensitising skin irritant
Marigold Tagates minuta 0.01% Phototoxic skin irritant
Mexican tea, American wormseed Chenopodium ambrosioides Prohibited Toxic
Mint Mentha piperata and spicata 2% Based on 0.1% trans-2-hexenal; sensitising skin irritant
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans 0.4% Based on 1% methyl eugenol; carcinogen
Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini 16% Based on 1.2% farnesol; sensitizing skin irritant
Pennyroyal Mentha pulegium or Hedeoma pulegioides Prohibited Toxic
Pine Pinus sylvestris Prepare with antioxidants Oxidation creates phototoxic skin irritants
Rosemary Rosemarinus officinalis 36% Based on 0.011% methyl eugenol; carcinogen
Rue Ruta chalepensis 0.15% Based on presence of psoralenes; phototoxic skin irritant
Thyme Thymus vulgaris 2% Based on 0.1% trans-2-hexenal; sensitising skin irritant
Violet Viola odorata 2% Based on 0.1% trans-2-hexenal; sensitising skin irritant
Ylang-ylang Canagium odoratum 2% Based on 4% farnesol; sensitizing skin irritant