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Table 1 Resurgence events identified by the systematic literature review and their suggested causes

From: Malaria resurgence: a systematic review and assessment of its causes

    Weakening of control activities Technical problems Increasing malaria potential
Place Start End Funding or resource constraints War, disaster, or strife Purposeful cessation Administrative problems, complacency, or poor execution Community non-cooperation Unknown or unspecified Vector resistance Drug resistance Human or mosquito movement Development/ industry changes Socioeconomic weakening Climate/ weather War, disaster, or strife
Europe and Middle East             
Spain 1936 1943   [47]        [47] [47] [47]   [47]
Italy 1941 1945   [5]            [5]
Russia 1960 ?        [52]   [52] [52]    
Azerbaijan 1969 1981     [89]          
Afghanistan 1970 1987   [26][60]   [26]    [26]   [26]     
Turkey 1973 1977 [74]    [74]          
Tajikistan 1990 1997   [90][29]            
Azerbaijan 1990 1996 [28][89] [28][89]        [28][89]   [28][89]   
Turkey 1990 1994          [91] [91]    
Iran 1991 1999          [92] [92] [92]   [92]
Armenia 1994 1998 [93] [94]          [94]   [93]
Africa                
Liberia (Monrovia) 1948 1951 [22]*         [22]* [22]*    
Kenya (highlands) 1956 1961 [19]*    [19]* [19]*         
Kenya (Pare-Taveta) 1959 1962    [95]*[96]*[32]*           
Cameroon (Yaounde) 1960 1963    [33]*[34]     [34]       
Liberia 1961 ? [22]*   [22]*           
Zanzibar 1967 1983    [37][97][9]           
Swaziland 1971 1996 [53][21]    [53][21]      [53]*[21] [53]*   [21]  
Zambia 1976 2000 [98]      [99]        
Nigeria (Garki) 1974 1975    [35]*           
São Tomé and Príncipe 1973 1976   [100]            
Mauritius 1975 1982     [27]      [27] [27]   [27]  
Madagascar (highlands) 1976 1988 [40]   [40] [40]          
Kenya (Kisumu) 1977 ? [42]     [42] [101]        
Ethiopia (Debre Zeit) 1980 1991 [25]*   [25]*       [25]*    [25]*  
Mayotte 1981 1984       [102]       [102]  
Sudan (Khartoum) 1981 1993       [51]   [103] [51][104]    [104] [104]
São Tomé and Príncipe 1985 2003 [43]    [100][43] [43]   [43]       
Zanzibar 1989 1997 [23]*    [23]*          
Kenya (highlands) 1990 1998         [105][62][63]*   [105]   [55]*  
Sudan (Gezira) 1990 1994 [5]             
Uganda (highlands) 1990 1994          [106] [106]    
Zimbabwe 1995 2007 [107]        [108]      
South Africa 1995 2000    [97]     [97] [109][61]*   [109]    
Asia                
China 1960 1970   [31]           [31]  
Sri Lanka 1964 1969 [26]   [20][26] [26]       [26]    
India 1965 1976 [110][26][18]* [110][18]   [18]*[110] [18]   [111]   [18] [111, 112]    
Pakistan 1967 1972 [26]    [26]    [81]       
Myanmar 1968 2008 [20]    [20]    [20] [20] [20]     
Thailand 1970 1981 [20]    [20] [20]   [20] [20] [20]     
Nepal 1971 1986 [20]    [20]   [20]    [20] [20]    
Bangladesh 1971 1994 [20] [48]*[113]   [48]*[20]    [20] [20] [48]*[113] [48]* [48]*   [48]*
Bhutan 1972 1994    [20] [20]      [20]     
Vietnam 1979 1991 [49]*    [49]*     [49] [49]    [49]  
Pakistan 1980 1992         [64]* [114]* [114]   [58]* [114]*
Sri Lanka 1982 1987     [50]     [50] [50] [50]   [50]  
India (Bombay) 1992 1997     [115]       [116]    
Republic of Korea 1993 2000          [46]*     
China (Central) 1995 2000 [117]   [118]           
Americas                
Nicaragua 1960 1968 [26]       [26]   [119]     
Paraguay 1961 1967 [120]             
Bolivia 1965 1979 [121][122]    [122]          
Belize 1971 1983 [123]         [45][123]     
Brazil 1974 1992 [123][44]         [124][44] [44]    
French Guiana 1975 1990     [54] [41][54]    [54] [125][41][54]     [41][54]
Haiti 1976 1982 [123]             
Guatemala 1976 1998   [123]      [45][123]       
Colombia 1976 1998   [126]   [75]          
Dominican Republic 1978 1982 [123]         [123]     
Mexico 1979 1985 [127][128]   [128] [127]          
Ecuador 1980 1990 [123]   [75]* [127]          
Peru 1981 1998    [75]      [129] [129]     
Guyana 1983 1991    [75] [130]      [130]     
Nicaragua 1983 1996 [131] [26][131]   [131]*       [131]    [131]
Costa Rica 1990 1998 [54]   [54] [54]      [5][54] [5][54]    
Belize 1991 1994    [132]*[133]           
Suriname 1992 2001   [134]         [134]    
Ecuador 1996 2002 [135] [135]   [135]         [135]  
Panama 2001 2004     [136]   [137]    [137]     
Pacific                
Indonesia 1963 1973 [26] [26]      [26] [26]      
Malaysia (Sabah) 1967 1978     [26] [26]   [26] [26] [26]     
Solomon Islands 1976 1992     [26]   [26] [26][138]   [26]     
Papua New Guinea 1980 1990       [139]        
Indonesia 1997 2000 [140]*[141]*    [140]*          
Vanuatu 1999 2003 [142]    [142]          
  1. *Indicates in-depth quantitative or qualitative analysis of evidence for suggested causes.