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Table 1 Characteristics of pregnant women who were Plasmodium falciparum positive by study period

From: Temporal trends of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) drug-resistance molecular markers in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from pregnant women in western Kenya

Characteristics 1996-2000 2002-2008 2008-2009 P valuea
  n = 180 (%) n = 176 (%) n = 133 (%)  
Use of SP in pregnancyb
 Yes     
 No 17 (9.4) 90 (53.6) 90 (67.7) <0.001
  163 (90.6) 78 (46.4) 43 (32.3)  
Septrin/Cotrimoxazole use
 Yes - - 32 (23.1) -
 No - - 101 (75.9)  
Mother’s age
 Mean ± SD (years) 20.4 ± 4.1 21.1 ± 4.5 22.3 ± 5.3 0.002
Gravidity
 Primigravid 104 (57.8) 90 (51.1) 72 (54.1)  
 Secundigravid 40 (22.2) 41 (23.3) 25 (18.8) 0.50
 Multigravid 36 (20.0) 45 (25.6) 36 (27.1)  
Placental malaria (parasites/μl)
 Geometric mean 1688.3* 2212.8 3006.5* 0.10
 (95 % CI) (1220.01 to 2336.2) (1558.2 to 3142.4) (1946 to 4644.7)  
Peripheral malaria (parasites/μl)
 Geometric mean 713.1 884.3 683.7 0.56
 (95 % CI) (534.4 to 951.5) (597.7 to 1308.2) (463.9 to 1007.7)  
Maternal anaemia at deliveryc
 <11 g/dl 99 (55.9) 63 (55.3) 90 (67.7) 0.030
 >11 g/dl 78 (44.1) 51 (44.7) 43 (32.3)  
HIV status
 HIV- 96 (53.3) 120 (68.2) 95 (70.9) 0.002
 HIV+ 84 (46.7) 56 (31.8) 38 (29.1)  
50
 C (TGT) 180 (100) 176 (100) 132 (100) N/A
R (C GT) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
51
 N (AAT) 38 (21.1) 3 (1.7) 3 (2.3) <0.001
I (AT T) 142 (78.9) 173 (98.3) 130 (97.7)  
59
 C (TGT) 87 (48.3) 26 (14.8) 13 (9.8) <0.001
R (C GT) 93 (51.7) 150 (85.2) 120 (90.2)  
108
 S (AGC) 4 (2.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.031
N (AA C) 176 (97.8) 176 (100) 133 (100)  
164
 I (ATA) 180 (100) 175 (99.4) 131 (99.2) 0.54
L (T TA) 0 (0) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.8)  
436&
 S (TCT) 159 (88.3) 171 (97.2) 124 (93.9) 0.004
A/F/H (G CT/TT T/CA T) 21 (11.7) 5 (2.8) 8 (6.1)  
437
 A (GCT) 103 (57.2) 4 (2.3) 0 (0) <0.001
G (GG T) 77 (42.8) 172 (97.7) 133 (100)  
540
 K (AAA) 124 (68.9) 6 (3.4) 1 (0.8) <0.001
E (G AA) 56 (31.1) 170 (96.6) 132 (99.2)  
581
 A (GCG) 180 (100) 176 (100) 124 (94.7) <0.001
G (GG G) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7 (5.3)  
613
 A (GCC) 178 (100) 176 (100) 133 (100) N/A
T/S (A CC/T CC) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
  1. Note: Data are proportion (%) of Plasmodium falciparum smear-positive samples unless otherwise indicated. Mutated amino acids and genetic codes are depicted in bold font.
  2. n = number of samples. CI = confidence interval. SD = Standard deviation. N/A = not applicable.
  3. a P values based on Pearson chi-square test or exact chi-square for categorical variables and ANOVA for comparison of the mean of continuous variables.
  4. b For 1996–2000 and 2002–2008 (n = 168) studies, only history of SP use (case management or any dose of IPTp-SP) in pregnancy was documented while IPTp use was recorded for 2008–2009.
  5. c For 1996–2000 (n = 177), 2002–2008 (n = 114).
  6. *Placental parasite density comparison between 1996–2000 and 2008–2009 (P = 0.034).
  7. &S436H, the new mutation at codon 436, was detected at 2.3 % in 2002–2008 and 3.8 % in 2008–2009.