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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable analyses of the association between SP use and mutations in SP drug resistance genotypes by study period

From: Temporal trends of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) drug-resistance molecular markers in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from pregnant women in western Kenya

Outcome 1996-2000 2002-2008 2008-2009
  Unadjusted Adjustede Unadjusted Adjustede Unadjusted Adjustede
  OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
dhfr triple mutanta       
 Use of SP in pregnancy‡ 2.7 (1.0 to 7.5) 2.4 (0.8 to 7.1) 1.4 (0.634 to 3.0) 1.4 (0.6 to 3.2) 1.1 (0.3 to 3.3) 1.3 (0.4 to 4.7)
dhps double mutantb       
 Use of SP in pregnancy 3.5 (1.3 to 9.6)* 2.3 (0.7 to 7.0) 1.2 (0.3 to 4.1) 1.3 (0.3 to 5.2) - f - f
Combined dhfr/dhpsc,d       
 Use of SP in pregnancy 4.2 (1.6 to 10.9) * 2.6 (0.9 to 7.4) 1.3 (0.6 to 2.6) 1.4 (0.7 to 2.9) 1.0 (0.3 to 2.9) 1.2 (0.3 to 4.1)
  1. Note: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. ‡For 1996–2000 and 2002–2008 studies, only history of SP use (case management or any dose of IPTp) in pregnancy was documented while IPTp use was recorded for 2008–2009.
  3. adhfr triple mutant was compared to the grouped all other dhfr genotypes using binary logistic regression.
  4. bdhps double mutant was compared to the grouped all other dhps genotypes using binary logistic regression.
  5. c For 1996–2000, combined dhfr/dhps mutations were analysed using three categories in cumulative logistic regression: (1) grouping all other genotypes as one group, (2) quadruple mutant, and (3) quintuple mutant.
  6. d For 2002–2008 and 2008–2009, quintuple combined dhfr/dhps mutant was compared to the grouped all other combined dhfr/dhps genotypes using binary logistic regression.
  7. e Adjusted ORs are derived from multivariable binary or cumulative logistic regression, controlling for gravidity, log transformed peripheral parasite density, HIV status, sample collection year, and total number of msp 2 clones.
  8. f Only one sample was single mutant in 2008–2009, while the rest were double mutant, therefore association analysis was not performed.
  9. * Statistically significant, P < 0.05.