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Table 1 Global detection of multiple clone infections using molecular markers in Plasmodium viva x populations

From: Understanding the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax is essential for malaria control and elimination

Study region Study [reference] Year samples collected Number of samples analysed Marker Proportion infections with multiple clones (%) Mean MOI
Asia       
Thailand Imwong et al. 2007 [27] 1992-1993 92 Microsatellites 30 - > 60 1.4
  Imwong et al. 2005 [30] 1995-1998 100 CSP + MSP1 26 1.29
     MSP3α 19.3  
     CSP + MSP3α 35.6  
Laos Imwong et al 2007 [27] 2001-2003 81 Microsatellites 30 - > 60 1.5
Vietnam Van den Eede et al. 2010 [33] 1999-2000 69 Microsatellites 100 3.7
India Prajapati et al. 2006 [34] 2000-2004 252 GAM-1 13.09 N/S
  Imwong et al. 2007 [27] 2003-2004 90 Microsatellites 10-40 1.2
  Kim et al. 2006 [35] 2003-2004 151 CSP, MSP1, MSP3α 10.6 N/S
Sri Lanka Wickramara-chchi et al. 2010 [36] 1998-2000 201 MSP3α 13.8-20 N/S
  Karunaweera et al. 2008 [26] 2005 50 Microsatellites 9.1-60 N/S
  Gunawardena et al. 2010 [37] 2003-2008 140 Microsatellites 55 N/S
     MSP3α 6 N/S
Pakistan Khatoon et al. 2010 [38] [2007] 50 MSP3β 12  
     MSP3α + MSP3β 2 N/S
  Zakeri et al. 2010 [39] 2008 187 CSP, MSP-1, MSP3α 30  
China   2004 54: Anhui Province   5.6 N/S
  Yang et al. 2006 2005 31: Guizhou Province MSP3β 0  
   2004 14: Guangxi Province   0  
  Zhong et al. 2011 [41] 2006-2008 140 MSP3α 7.6-14.3 N/S
     MSP3β 14.3-15  
Myanmar Kim et al. 2010 [42] 2000 96 CSP 24.5 N/S
     CSP 24.1 N/S
  Moon et al. 2009 [43] 2004 349   MSP1 16.4
     MSP3α 21.6  
  Zhong et a.l 2011 [41] 2006-2008 72 MSP3α 10.2 N/S
     MSP3β 16.4  
  Gunawardena et al. 2010 [37] 2007 167 Microsatellites 67.1 N/S
East Timor Chen et al. 2007 [44] 2001 17 CSP, MSP-1, AMA-1 35 N/S
Middle East       
Iran Zakeri et al. 2003 [45] 2000-2001 107 MSP-1 20 N/S
  Zakeri et al. 2006 [46] 2000-2003 374 CSP 12 N/S
  Zakeri et al. 2006 [47] 2000-2003 144 MSP3α 3.5 N/S
  Zakeri et al. 2010 [39] 2008 150 CSP, MSP-1, MSP3α 24.6 N/S
Uzbekistan Severini et al. 2004 [48] 1999-2002 12 indigenous cases MSP-1 8 N/S
    10 imported cases   10  
Afghanistan     CSP 6.4  
  Zakeri et al. 2010 [49] 2007 202 MSP-1 0 N/S
     MSP3α 3.5  
Turkey Zeyrek et al. 2010 [50] 2007-2008 31 MSP-1 3.2 N/S
Africa       N/S
Ethiopia Gunawardena et al. 2010 [37] 2006-2008 118 Microsatellites 73.70 N/S
South & Central America      
Mexico Joy et al. 2008 [20] 1997-2005 234 Microsatellites 15.8 1.01
Peru Sutton et al. 2009 [51] 2003-2004 186 MSP3α 26.3 2-3a
  Van den Eede et al. 2010 [28] 2006-2008 159 Microsatellites 11-70 1.1
Brazil Ferreira et al. 2007 [2] 1999 74 Microsatellites 48 (1999) N/S
   2004-2005    49 (2004-5)  
  Rezende et al. 2009 [52] 2003-2005 44 Tandem repeats 0-66 N/S
  Rezende et al. 2010 [53] 2003-2005 53 Microsatellites 32-57 N/S
  Storti- Melo et al. 2009 [54] 2003-2005 155 CSP 0-39.3 N/S
  Orjuela-Sanchez et al. 2009 [55] 2005-2007 77 Microsatellites 10.1-42.4 N/S
French Guiana     MSP-1 (57 samples) 12.3 N/S
  Veron et al. 2009 [56] 2005-2006 109 MSP3α (109 samples) 13.8  
     MSP-1 + MSP3α (57 samples) 21  
Guyana Bonilla et al. 2006 [57] 2000 61 CSP 39.3 N/S
Colombia Imwong et al. 2007 [27] 2001-2003 82 Microsatellites 10-40 1.1
  Cristiano et al. 2008 [58] 2006 55 MSP3α 36.4 N/S
Venezuela Ord et al. 2005 [59] 1995-1997 58 MSP3α 10 N/S
  Leclerc et al. 2005 [60] Not stated 39 MSP-1 0 N/A
Oceania       
Papua New Guinea Henry-Halldin et al. 2011 [61] 2001-2003 703: Wosera region CSP 36.8 N/S
    986: Mugil region   34.4  
  Mueller et al. 2002 [62] 2002 11 MSP3α 18 N/S
  Koepfli et al. 2009 [63] 2004-2005 108 Microsatellites 81.4 1-8
  Gomez et al. 2003 [64] Not stated 89 pvMS1 4.5 N/S
  1. aMean MOI was not reported, shown is the observed COI range
  2. N/S: Mean MOI was not reported; N/A: none of the samples tested were polyclonal