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Table 1 Characteristics of study populations in Rufiji and Kilombero-Ulanga (KU) Demographic and Health Surveillance System sites, Tanzania, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006 (N = 37,309)

From: Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

  2001 2002 2004 2005 2006
  Rufiji (N = 1,521) n (%) KU (N = 1,543) n (%) Rufiji (N = 2,956) n (%) KU (N = 3,885) n (%) Rufiji (N = 3,715) n (%) KU (N = 4,044) n (%) Rufiji (N = 5,399) n (%) KU (N = 4,902) n (%) Rufiji (N = 4,190) n (%) KU (N = 5,223) n (%)
Median age in years (interquartile range) 16 (6–39) 19 (7–35) 15 (6–36) 17 (6–34) 14 (5–35) 15 (5–35) 14 (5–35) 15 (5–33) 14 (5–34) 15 (6–34)
Age groups           
 <1 year old 38 (2%) 44 (3%) 81 (3%) 95 (2%) 100 (3%) 156 (4%) 128 (2%) 207 (4%) 157 (4%) 163 (3%)
 1–4 years old 229 (15%) 209 (14%) 453 (15%) 628 (16%) 639 (17%) 652 (16%) 957 (18%) 820 (17%) 675 (16%) 781 (15%)
 5–15 years old 466 (31%) 432 (28%) 929 (31%) 1115 (29%) 1180 (32%) 1201 (30%) 1717 (32%) 1473 (30%) 1369 (33%) 1629 (31%)
 >15 years old 788 (52%) 858 (56%) 1493 (51%) 2035 (53%) 1796 (48%) 2035 (50%) 2597 (48%) 2402 (49%) 1989 (47%) 2618 (50%)
Bed net use previous night           
 Used untreated net 235 (15%) 911 (59%) 437 (15%) 2312 (60%) 416 (11%) 2063 (51%) 911 (17%) 2302 (47%) 1430 (34%) 2640 (51%)
 Uses insecticide treated net 42 (3%) 145 (9%) 70 (2%) 395 (10%) 370 (10%) 1045 (26%) 1197 (22%) 1688 (34%) 1300 (31%) 1864 (36%)
Socioeconomic status by asset index           
 Poorest 287 (19%) 394 (26%) 410 (17%) 629 (17%) 625 (17%) 787 (19%) 853 (16%) 844 (17%) 593 (14%) 942 (18%)
 Less poor 163 (11%) 224 (15%) 337 (14%) 715 (19%) 823 (22%) 624 (15%) 1074 (20%) 1004 (20%) 816 (19%) 998 (19%)
 Middle 281 (18%) 332 (22%) 496 (20%) 804 (21%) 805 (22%) 766 (19%) 1159 (21%) 958 (20%) 938 (22%) 1048 (20%)
 More rich 416 (27%) 249 (16%) 589 (24%) 830 (22%) 726 (20%) 984 (24%) 1224 (23%) 977 (20%) 903 (22%) 1125 (22%)
 Least poor 374 (25%) 344 (22%) 613 (25%) 799 (21%) 736 (20%) 883 (22%) 1089 (20%) 1119 (23%) 940 (22%) 1079 (21%)
Mean rainfall in previous 6 months from date of interview (in cm) 61.3 44.2 96.4 198.4 74.5 149.0 67.6 146.1 93.3 136.1
Malaria burden           
 Asexual parasitaemia 400 (26%) 274 (18%) 828 (28%) 851 (22%) 696 (19%) 1013 (25%) 999 (19%) 559 (11%) 633 (15%) 698 (13%)
 Geometric mean asexual  parasite density (95% CL) 886 (746,1052) 1008 (830,1222) 821 (736,916) 1032 (923,1152) 1104 (969,1259) 992 (895,1100) 1122 (1008,1248) 727 (637,831) 2144 (1837,2504) 540 (482,605)
 Gametocytaemia 30 (2%) 23 (1%) 44 (1%) 69 (2%) 23 (1%) 73 (2%) 47 (1%) 14 (<1%) 14 (<1%) 25 (<1%)
 Geometric mean gametocyte  density (95% CL) 66
(50,86)
113 (69,186) 104 (60,183) 97
(76,123)
76
(46,125)
91
(74,113)
67
(46,99)
67
(38,121)
224 (95,528) 128 (48,343)
 Gametocytemic patients  of parasitemic pts 30/400 (7.5%) 23/274 (8.4%) 44/828 (5.3%) 69/851 (8.1%) 23/696 (3.3%) 73/1013 (7.2%) 47/999
(4.7%)
14/559 (2.5%) 14/633 (2.2%) 25/698 (3.6%)
Fever in prior two weeks 301 (20%) 227 (15%) 339 (11%) 571 (15%) 377 (10%) 421 (10%) 756 (14%) 484 (10%) 457 (11%) 462 (9%)
Health seeking and anti-malarial use for febrile illness in prior two weeks           
 Use of health facility 89 (6%) 57 (4%) 115 (4%) 187 (5%) 160 (4%) 107 (3%) 299 (6%) 163 (3%) 130 (3%) 193 (4%)
 Use of any anti-malarial 69 (5%) 78 (5%) 98 (3%) 242 (6%) 152 (4%) 212 (5%) 270 (5%) 267 (5%) 117 (3%) 287 (6%)
 Use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine only 25 (2%) 6 (<1%) 65 (2%) 144 (4%) 41 (1%) 104 (3%) 36 (1%) 120 (2%) 42 (1%) 136 (3%)
 Use of artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 83 (2%) 0 (0%) 180 (3%) 0 (0%) 32 (1%) 0 (0%)
 Use of artesunate monotherapy 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (<1%) 0 (0%) 5 (<1%) 0 (0%) 10 (<1%) 0 (0%)
 Use of other anti-malarial* 44 (3%) 72 (5%) 33 (1%) 98 (3%) 27 (1%) 108 (3%) 52 (1%) 147 (3%) 33 (1%) 151 (3%)
Estimated number of anti-malarial treatments per 100 persons per year           
 Any anti-malarial 118 131 86 162 106 136 130 142 73 143
 Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine only 43 10 57 96 29 67 17 64 26 68
 Artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine 0 0 0 0 58 0 87 0 20 0
 Other anti-malarial* 75 121 29 66 19 69 25 80 20 75
  1. *Primarily quinine, amodiaquine and very rarely chloroquine.
  2. An estimate of the annual population drug pressure defined as the number of anti-malarial treatments per 100 persons per year was calculated by multiplying the proportion of persons receiving an anti-malarial during the two week recall period of the survey by 26 (the number of 2 week periods per year).