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Table 1 Characteristics of study populations in Rufiji and Kilombero-Ulanga (KU) Demographic and Health Surveillance System sites, Tanzania, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006 (N = 37,309)

From: Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

 

2001

2002

2004

2005

2006

 

Rufiji (N = 1,521) n (%)

KU (N = 1,543) n (%)

Rufiji (N = 2,956) n (%)

KU (N = 3,885) n (%)

Rufiji (N = 3,715) n (%)

KU (N = 4,044) n (%)

Rufiji (N = 5,399) n (%)

KU (N = 4,902) n (%)

Rufiji (N = 4,190) n (%)

KU (N = 5,223) n (%)

Median age in years (interquartile range)

16 (6–39)

19 (7–35)

15 (6–36)

17 (6–34)

14 (5–35)

15 (5–35)

14 (5–35)

15 (5–33)

14 (5–34)

15 (6–34)

Age groups

          

 <1 year old

38 (2%)

44 (3%)

81 (3%)

95 (2%)

100 (3%)

156 (4%)

128 (2%)

207 (4%)

157 (4%)

163 (3%)

 1–4 years old

229 (15%)

209 (14%)

453 (15%)

628 (16%)

639 (17%)

652 (16%)

957 (18%)

820 (17%)

675 (16%)

781 (15%)

 5–15 years old

466 (31%)

432 (28%)

929 (31%)

1115 (29%)

1180 (32%)

1201 (30%)

1717 (32%)

1473 (30%)

1369 (33%)

1629 (31%)

 >15 years old

788 (52%)

858 (56%)

1493 (51%)

2035 (53%)

1796 (48%)

2035 (50%)

2597 (48%)

2402 (49%)

1989 (47%)

2618 (50%)

Bed net use previous night

          

 Used untreated net

235 (15%)

911 (59%)

437 (15%)

2312 (60%)

416 (11%)

2063 (51%)

911 (17%)

2302 (47%)

1430 (34%)

2640 (51%)

 Uses insecticide treated net

42 (3%)

145 (9%)

70 (2%)

395 (10%)

370 (10%)

1045 (26%)

1197 (22%)

1688 (34%)

1300 (31%)

1864 (36%)

Socioeconomic status by asset index

          

 Poorest

287 (19%)

394 (26%)

410 (17%)

629 (17%)

625 (17%)

787 (19%)

853 (16%)

844 (17%)

593 (14%)

942 (18%)

 Less poor

163 (11%)

224 (15%)

337 (14%)

715 (19%)

823 (22%)

624 (15%)

1074 (20%)

1004 (20%)

816 (19%)

998 (19%)

 Middle

281 (18%)

332 (22%)

496 (20%)

804 (21%)

805 (22%)

766 (19%)

1159 (21%)

958 (20%)

938 (22%)

1048 (20%)

 More rich

416 (27%)

249 (16%)

589 (24%)

830 (22%)

726 (20%)

984 (24%)

1224 (23%)

977 (20%)

903 (22%)

1125 (22%)

 Least poor

374 (25%)

344 (22%)

613 (25%)

799 (21%)

736 (20%)

883 (22%)

1089 (20%)

1119 (23%)

940 (22%)

1079 (21%)

Mean rainfall in previous 6 months from date of interview (in cm)

61.3

44.2

96.4

198.4

74.5

149.0

67.6

146.1

93.3

136.1

Malaria burden

          

 Asexual parasitaemia

400 (26%)

274 (18%)

828 (28%)

851 (22%)

696 (19%)

1013 (25%)

999 (19%)

559 (11%)

633 (15%)

698 (13%)

 Geometric mean asexual  parasite density (95% CL)

886 (746,1052)

1008 (830,1222)

821 (736,916)

1032 (923,1152)

1104 (969,1259)

992 (895,1100)

1122 (1008,1248)

727 (637,831)

2144 (1837,2504)

540 (482,605)

 Gametocytaemia

30 (2%)

23 (1%)

44 (1%)

69 (2%)

23 (1%)

73 (2%)

47 (1%)

14 (<1%)

14 (<1%)

25 (<1%)

 Geometric mean gametocyte  density (95% CL)

66

(50,86)

113 (69,186)

104 (60,183)

97

(76,123)

76

(46,125)

91

(74,113)

67

(46,99)

67

(38,121)

224 (95,528)

128 (48,343)

 Gametocytemic patients  of parasitemic pts

30/400 (7.5%)

23/274 (8.4%)

44/828 (5.3%)

69/851 (8.1%)

23/696 (3.3%)

73/1013 (7.2%)

47/999

(4.7%)

14/559 (2.5%)

14/633 (2.2%)

25/698 (3.6%)

Fever in prior two weeks

301 (20%)

227 (15%)

339 (11%)

571 (15%)

377 (10%)

421 (10%)

756 (14%)

484 (10%)

457 (11%)

462 (9%)

Health seeking and anti-malarial use for febrile illness in prior two weeks

          

 Use of health facility

89 (6%)

57 (4%)

115 (4%)

187 (5%)

160 (4%)

107 (3%)

299 (6%)

163 (3%)

130 (3%)

193 (4%)

 Use of any anti-malarial

69 (5%)

78 (5%)

98 (3%)

242 (6%)

152 (4%)

212 (5%)

270 (5%)

267 (5%)

117 (3%)

287 (6%)

 Use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine only

25 (2%)

6 (<1%)

65 (2%)

144 (4%)

41 (1%)

104 (3%)

36 (1%)

120 (2%)

42 (1%)

136 (3%)

 Use of artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

83 (2%)

0 (0%)

180 (3%)

0 (0%)

32 (1%)

0 (0%)

 Use of artesunate monotherapy

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

2 (<1%)

0 (0%)

5 (<1%)

0 (0%)

10 (<1%)

0 (0%)

 Use of other anti-malarial*

44 (3%)

72 (5%)

33 (1%)

98 (3%)

27 (1%)

108 (3%)

52 (1%)

147 (3%)

33 (1%)

151 (3%)

Estimated number of anti-malarial treatments per 100 persons per year

          

 Any anti-malarial

118

131

86

162

106

136

130

142

73

143

 Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine only

43

10

57

96

29

67

17

64

26

68

 Artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine

0

0

0

0

58

0

87

0

20

0

 Other anti-malarial*

75

121

29

66

19

69

25

80

20

75

  1. *Primarily quinine, amodiaquine and very rarely chloroquine.
  2. An estimate of the annual population drug pressure defined as the number of anti-malarial treatments per 100 persons per year was calculated by multiplying the proportion of persons receiving an anti-malarial during the two week recall period of the survey by 26 (the number of 2 week periods per year).