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Table 2 In vivo efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children <5 years old in Rufiji and Kilombero-Ulanga (KU) Demographic and Health Surveillance System sites, Tanzania, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006

From: Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

  2001 2002 2004 2006
  Rufiji KU Rufiji KU Rufiji KU Rufiji KU
Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (N = 74) (N = 66) (N = 87) (N = 77) (N = 66) (N = 65) (N = 57) (N = 52)
Early treatment failure (ETF)1 0% 5% 6% 0% 11% 5% 4% 13%
Late treatment failure         
  Late clinical failure (LCF)2 1% 0% 0% 0% 8% 3% 19% 10%
  Late parasitological failure (LPF)3 8% 5% 18% 8% 5% 6% 7% 12%
Adequate Clinical Response (ACR) 99% 95% 94% 100% 82% 92% 77% 77%
Adequate Clinical and Parasitological  Response (ACPR)4at Day 14 91% 91% 76% 92% 77% 86% 70% 65%
Artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (N = 67) (N = 59) (N = 86) (N = 78) (N = 72) (N = 66) (N = 58) (N = 57)
Early treatment failure (ETF)1 0% 0% 5% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Late treatment failure         
  Late clinical failure (LCF)2 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5% 7%
  Late parasitological failure (LPF)3 0% 3% 9% 4% 3% 0% 2% 4%
Adequate Clinical Response (ACR) 100% 100% 95% 100% 100% 100% 95% 93%
Adequate Clinical and Parasitological  Response (ACPR)4at Day 14 100% 97% 86% 96% 97% 100% 93% 89%
  1. 1 Early treatment failure defined as: development of danger signs or severe malaria on day 1, day 2 or day 3 in the presence of parasitaemia; or parasitaemia on day 2 higher than day 0 count irrespective of axillary temperature; or parasitaemia on day 3 with axillary temperature ≥37.5°C; or parasitaemia on day 3 ≥25% of count on day 0.
  2. 2 Late clinical failure defined as development of danger signs or severe malaria on any day from day 4 to day 28 in the presence of parasitaemia, without previously meeting any of the criteria of Early Treatment Failure; or presence of parasitaemia and axillary temperature ≥37.5°C on any day from day 4 to day 14, without previously meeting any of the criteria of Early Treatment Failure.
  3. 3 Late parasitological failure defined as presence of parasitaemia on any day from day 7 to day 14 and axillary temperature <37.5°C, without previously meeting any of the criteria of Early Treatment Failure or Late Clinical Failure.
  4. 4 Adequate clinical and parasitological response at day 14 defined absence of parasitaemia on day 14 irrespective of axillary temperature without previously meeting any of the criteria of Early Treatment Failure or Late Clinical Failure or Late Parasitological Failure.
  5. Note: In 2001, 4 patients were lost to follow-up from Rufiji with 2 in the SP group and 2 in the AS + SP group, while 7 patients were lost in KU with 4 in the SP group and 3 in the AS + SP group. In 2004, 12 patients were lost in Rufiji with 9 in the SP group and 3 in the AS + SP group; 5 were lost in KU with 3 in the SP group and 2 in the AS + SP group. In 2006, 5 patients were lost to follow-up in Rufiji with 2 in the SP group and 3 in the AS + SP group; 14 were lost in KU with 10 in the SP group and 4 in the AS + SP group.