Species-based significant differences. Significant differences for IL-12 (p40), MCP-1, M-CSF, and Ang-2 were observed between patients infected with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and a significant difference was noted for IL-12 (p40) between patients infected with P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale. Each coloured circle represents a single patient, with a horizontal line through each data set indicating the mean concentration. Data sets are compared to one another by arrows spanning between them along with an asterix. See Table 2 for p values.