IgM antibody responses to merozoite antigens (A) and P. falciparum ( Pf ) lysate (B). Seroprevalence is represented by bars as the % of responders; plasma levels are represented by dot plots, with horizontal lines indicating median values. Data from children with SM is shown as shaded bars/dots; data from children with UM is shown as open bars/dots. Results of matched comparisons are reported in the x axis as the number (%) of divergent pairs for IgM seroprevalence, and the median difference (inter-quartile range) of IgM levels between SM and UM. P-values were calculated using McNemar’s or Sign test. All comparisons were corrected by the Monte Carlo permutation test (1000 random permutations). Thresholds for seroprevalence (OD): MSP-119 = 0.605, EBA-175 = 0.514, AMA-1 = 0.554, DBLα = 0.444, P. falciparum lysate = 0.057. Median difference (inter-quartile range) of IgG levels against uninfected erythrocytes lysate between SM and UM = −0.02 [−0.2, 0.1], P = 1.000.