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Table 2 The frequency of 1014F and 1014S kdr alleles in Anopheles gambiae M form (M), S form (S), M and S hybrids (H) and Anopheles arabiensis (B) in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso, from 2008–2010

From: Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?

Locality Species 2008 2009 2010 p value 1014F p value 1014S
N Freq 1014F Freq 1014S N Freq 1014F Freq 1014S N Freq 1014F Freq 1014S
Goundry B 45 0.01 0.01 44 0.02 0.07 111 0.01 0.06 0.261 0.118
  H 3 0.50 - 0 - - 0 - - - -
  M 0 - - 15 0.39 0.00 70 0.58 0.00 0.220 -
  S 12 0.58 0.00 5 1.00 0.00 125 0.97 0.00 0.001 -
Koupela B 30 0.00 0.00 42 0.05 0.02 115 0.02 0.12 0.124 0.000
  H 0 - - 0 - - 4 0.88 - 1  
  M 14 0.36 0.00 15 0.23 0.00 107 0.51 0.00 0.056  
  S 6 0.92 0.00 3 0.83 - 89 0.92 0.00 0.348  
Kuinima B 37 0.04 0.05 28 0.02 0.04 84 0.04 0.07 1 0.879
  H 0 - - 1 1.00 0.00 1 1.00 - 1.00 -
  M 3 0.33 0.00 8 0.69 0.00 35 0.59 0.00 0.6845 -
  S 36 0.88 0.00 24 0.96 0.00 192 0.95 0.00 0.2437 -
Soumousso B 16 0.00 0.00 24 0.50 0.02 89 0.03 0.07 0.6672 0.217
  H 1 1.00 0.00 0 - - 0 - -   -
  M 4 0.50 0.00 9 0.33 0.00 63 0.60 0.00 0.05451 -
  S 51 0.86 0.00 24 1.00 0.00 158 0.98 - 0.000 -
  1. Frequencies of 1014F and 1014S for the three years are compared for each molecular form in each site using Fisher exact test. (−) represents value of the data which cannot be calculated.