Monocyte and T cell activation status in the different clinical groups at admission. A. Monocytes were identified based on their forward (FSC) and side scatter profiles as well as their CD14 positivity (green events). Representative cytograms of monocytes from a UM and a CM patient are shown. B. The percentages of CD14+ cells (monocytes) positive for HLA-DR were similar between CM and SMA cases and between UM and AC. However, both CM and SMA cases had higher percentages of HLA-DR+ monocytes than UM or AC children. C. A similar profile was found for the monocyte HLA-DR mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). D. The percentages of CD3+ cells (T cells) positive for CD69 or HLA-DR, early and late T cell activation markers, respectively were similar between clinical cases but significantly lower in the AC children. Percentages were determined at admission for each group. Data are presented as box plots: the box shows the interquartile range, the line through the box is the median and whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles. CM, SMA, UM and AC refer to cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, uncomplicated malaria and asymptomatic controls, respectively. * denotes P ≤ .05; ** denotes P ≤ .01; # denotes P > .05.