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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and delivery units

From: Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India

  ANC DU
Characteristic Rajnandgaon n = 1498 Bastar n = 1198 Rajnandgaon n = 547 Bastar n = 481
n(%) n(%) n(%) or mean (± SD) n(%) or mean (± SD)
Age (years)
 < 20 131 (8.7) 111 (9.3) 36 (6.6) 32 (6.7)
 20-34 1325 (88.5) 1065 (88.9) 497 (90.9) 438 (91.5)
 ≥ 35 42 (2.8) 22 (1.8) 14 (2.6) 9 (1.9)
Prior pregnancies1
 Primigravid 600 (40.1) 631 (52.7) 236 (43.1) 270 (56.1)
 Secundigravid 498 (33.2) 327 (27.3) 193 (35.3) 108 (22.5)
 Multigravid* 400 (26.7) 240 (20.0) 118 (21.6) 103 (21.4)
Estimated gestational age at enrollment (weeks)**,1    37.8 (± 1.2) 35.8 (± 1.7)
< 20 weeks 587 (39.2) 455 (38.0)   
20-36 weeks 858 (57.3) 733 (61.2)   
≥ 37 weeks 53 (3.5) 10 (0.8)   
Caste1
 Scheduled caste 333 (22.3) 354 (29.6) 112 (20.6) 145 (30.2)
 General caste 229 (15.3) 182 (15.2) 99 (18.2) 37 (7.7)
 Other backward caste 767 (51.3) 226 (18.9) 270 (49.5) 73 (15.2)
 Scheduled tribe 166 (11.1) 436 (36.4) 64 (11.7) 226 (47.0)
Education1
 No formal schooling 228 (15.2) 343 (28.6) 81 (14.8) 191 (39.7)
 Primary (1-5 years) 287 (19.2) 330 (27.6) 115 (21.0) 157 (32.6)
 Secondary (6-10 years) 760 (50.7) 380 (31.7) 258 (47.2) 107 (22.2)
 Higher (> 10 years) 223 (14.9) 145 (12.1) 93 (17.0) 26 (5.4)
Socioeconomic characteristics
 Owns TV1 960 (64.1) 453 (37.8) 324(59.2) 135(28.1)
 Owns bicycle 1113 (74.3) 893 (74.5) 436 (79.7) 358 (74.4)
 Owns house1 1219 (81.4) 1129 (94.2) 446 (81.5) 475 (98.8)
 Owns refrigerator 145 (9.7) 126 (10.5) 53 (9.7) 19 (4.0)
Roof material1
 Mud tiles 1059 (70.7) 1041 (86.9) 384 (70.2) 441 (91.7)
 Corrugated iron/asbestos sheet 42 (2.8) 4 (0.3) 8 (1.5) 3 (0.6)
 Cement/concrete 369 (24.6) 146 (12.2) 128 (23.4) 23 (4.8)
 Other (non-permanent materials) 28 (1.9) 7 (0.58) 27 (4.9) 14 (2.9)
Wall material1
 Mud/sand/dung 719 (48.0) 473 (39.5) 271 (49.5) 207 (43.0)
 Mud bricks 274 (18.3) 476 (39.7) 101 (18.5) 207 (43.0)
 Cement bricks 494 (33.0) 232 (19.4) 164 (30.0) 58 (12.1)
 Other (e.g., wood planks, grass & bamboo) 11 (0.7) 17 (1.4) 11 (2.0) 9 (1.9)
Primary cooking fuel1
 Wood 1030 (68.8) 1004 (83.8) 369 (67.5) 437 (90.9)
 Charcoal 78 (5.2) 5 (0.4) 21 (3.8) 1 (0.2)
 Gas 347 (23.2) 172 (14.4) 134 (24.5) 36 (7.5)
 Other (kerosene & electric heater) 43 (2.9) 17 (1.4) 23 (4.2) 7 (1.5)
  1. Numbers may not add to sample size secondary to missing data.
  2. SD = standard deviation.
  3. * Defined as ≥ 3 pregnancies.
  4. ** Gestational age calculated by fundal height in ANC and by Ballard score in DU subjects. Fundal heights measured when fundus was above the umbilicus. Unrecorded fundal heights considered a gestational age <20 weeks. Infants that were stillborn did not have a Ballard examination performed.
  5. 1p < 0.001.