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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of factors associated with peripheral parasitaemia and/or placental parasitaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and women at delivery units

From: Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India

  ANC DU
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Potential factors Peripheral parasitaemia prevalence Odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) Peripheral parasitaemia prevalence Odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
District (malaria transmission)
Stable (Bastar district) 34/1198 (2.8%) 43.7 (6.0-319.9) 43.4 (5.6-335.2) 18/474 (3.8%) 1.2 (0.6-2.4) -
Unstable (Rajnandgoan district) 1/1498 (0.1%) 16/502 (3.2%)
Age (years)
< 20 5/242 (2.1%) 1.7 (0.7-4.4) - 2/65 (3.1%) 0.9 (0.2-3.8) -
≥ 20 30/2454 (1.2%) 31/909 (3.4%)
Gravidity
Primi-/secundigravid 26/2056 (1.3%) 0.9 (0.4-1.9) - 28/768 (3.7%) 1.5 (0.6-4.0) -
Multigravid 9/640 (1.4%) 5/206 (2.4%)
Moderate anemia (< 9 g/dL)
Yes 22/432 (5.1%) 9.3 (4.6-18.6) 3.7 (1.8 – 7.7) 11/145 (7.6%) 3.0 (1.4-6.3) 2.5 (1.1-5.4)
No 13/2261 (0.6%) 22/828 (2.7%)
Fever
Within past week 23/239 (9.6%) 21.7 (10.6-44.2) 3.2 (1.2 – 8.6) 8/50 (16.0%) 6.8 (2.9-16.1) 5.8 (2.4-13.9)
No fever in past week 12/2457 (0.5%) 25/923 (2.7%)
Bednet use last night
Yes 4/742 (0.5%) 0.9 (0.2-5.1) - 5/203 (2.5%) 0.7 (0.3-1.8) -
No 2/345 (0.6%) 28/771 (3.6%)
Indoor residual spraying
Yes (ever) 8/697 (1.2%) 0.8 (0.4-1.9) - 4/261 (1.5%) 0.4 (0.1-1.1) -
No (never) 27/1999 (1.4%) 29/712 (4.1%)
Education
No formal schooling 25/571 (4.4%) 7.8 (3.7-16.3) 4.6 (2.0 – 10.7) 13/265 (4.9%) 1.8 (0.9-3.6) -
At least some schooling 10/1711 (0.6%) 20/709 (2.8%)
Caste
Tribal caste 15/602 (2.5%) 2.6 (1.3-5.2) 0.7 (0.3 -1.6) 10/282 (3.6%) 1.1 (0.5-2.3) -
Other caste 20/2091 (1.0%) 23/690 (3.3%)
Home ownership
Yes 35/2348 (1.5%) -   29/873 (3.3%) 0.8 (0.3-2.4) -
No 0/348 (0%) 4/101 (4.0%)
Wall material
Mud 35/1942 (1.8%) -   25/743 (3.4%) 1.0 (0.4-2.2) -
No mud 0/754 (0%) 8/231 (3.5%)
Primary cooking fuel
Biomass 35/2134 (1.6%) -   26/792 (3.3%) 0.8 (0.4-2.0) -
Non-biomass 0/563 (0%)    7/181 (3.9%)