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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and laboratory features of reported Plasmodium knowlesi deaths, on admission

From: Deaths due to Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: association with reporting as Plasmodium malariae and delayed parenteral artesunate

Details Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 P. knowlesi-associated gram-negative septic shock
Age, years 71 65 51 50 49 36
Sex Male Male Male Male Female Female
Time to death, hours 1 75 16 56 63 84
Blood pressure, mmHg 75/49 117/73 70/40 83/51 112/51 131/87
Heart rate per minute 127 58 110 89 113 110
Oxygen saturation on room air, % 75 92 90 60 88 85
PaO2:FiO2 ratio NA NA 66 115 91 NA
Axillary temperature, °C 39.4 36.8 37.6 37.5 36.7 37.8
Haemoglobin, g/dL (females 12.0-16.0, males 13.5-17.5) 14.9 14.6 9.4 10.9 12.6 11.1
WBC count, x 103 cells/μL (4.5-11) 10.8 4.8 6.8 7.81 12.1 7.8
Platelet count, x 103 cells/μL (150-450) 88 58 8 3 32 53
Serum creatinine, μmol/L (63-133) 1451 NA 578 330 283 NA
Serum urea, mmol/L (1.0–8.3) 81.5 6.1 44 38.5 25 10.8
Total serum bilirubin, μmol/L (<17) NA NA 146 74 25 NA
Serum aspartate aminotransferase, U/L (<37) 42 NA 53 NA 39 NA
Serum alanine aminotransferase concentration, U/L (<40) NA NA 28 49 20 NA
Serum albumin, g/L (35-60) NA NA 23 19 28 NA
Serum bicarbonate, mmol/L (18-23) NA NA 14 16.2 14 6.5
Serum lactate mmol/L (0.5-2.2) NA NA 6.4 6.8 NA NA
Blood cultures negative Not done negative negative Not done Enterobacter cloacae
Initial microscopic diagnosis P. falciparum”3+” P. malariae “4+” P. malariae “3+” P. malariae “4+” P. vivax “4+” P. malariae “4+” P. malariae “1+”
PCR result* P. knowlesi P. knowlesi P. knowlesi P. knowlesi P. knowlesi P. knowlesi
Initial therapy received IV quinine/oral chloroquine, primaquine and doxycycline Oral chloroquine IV artesunate Oral chloroquine and primaquine Oral chloroquine and primaquine Oral sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine and primaquine
  1. NOTE. Laboratory reference ranges are given in parentheses.
  2. NA, not available; IV, intravenous.
  3. *Blood samples used for PCR-confirmation were taken on the day of hospital admission for cases 1, 3 and 5; day 2 for case 2; day 3 for case 4, and day 1 for case 6.