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Table 1 Resistance associated factors

From: A framework for assessing the risk of resistance for anti-malarials in development

Factor Level of action Variables
Drug mode-of-action Parasite Target nature (cellular process, protein, other).
Target gene localization (nuclear or mitochondrial genome).
Drug subcellular localization (vacuole, organelle, cytoplasm).
Resistance mode-of-action Parasite Target mutation rate.
Nature of mutations required for resistance (single nt, in/del, copy number).
Number of mutations required for resistance (causal and compensating).
Fitness Human host Growth rate of resistant parasite (within host competition)
Effect of drug on gametocytogenesis and gametocyte viability.
Effect of resistance mutations on gametocytogenesis and gametocyte viability.
Drug pharmacokinetic Human host Clinical parasite reduction ratio
Drug half-life
Drug dosage
Drug deployment Human population Drug pressure
Drug combination
Parasite transmission intensity
   Human population immunity