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Table 1 General characteristics of patients with imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria grouped by presence or absence of schizontaemia on admission

From: The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

  All patients Schizontaemia No schizontaemia P value
  n = 401 n = 49 n = 352  
Demographic s     
 Age, years 39 (4–78) 41 (4–70) 39 (5–78) NS
 Male, female, n (%) 292 (72.8), 109 (27.2) 26 (53.1), 23 (46.9) 266 (75.6), 86 (24.4) 0.0018
Continent of acquisition     
 Africa, n (%) 360 (89.8) 38 (77.6) 322 (91.5) 0.0196
 Asia, n (%) 16 (4.0) 5 (10.2) 11 (3.1)  
 South and Central America, n (%) 10 (2.5) 3 (6.1) 7 (2.0)  
 Unknown, n (%) 15 (3.7) 3 (6.1) 12 (3.4)  
Duration of signs/symptoms     
 <8 days, n (%) 259 (64.6) 30 (61.2) 229 (65.1) NS
 8-14 days, n (%) 74 (18.5) 15 (30.6) 59 (16.8)  
 15-28 days, n (%) 27 (6.7) 0 (0) 27 (7.7)  
 >28 days, n (%) 8 (2.0) 0 (0) 8 (2.3)  
 Unknown, n (%) 33 (8.2) 4 (8.2) 29 (8.2)  
Use of malaria chemoprophylaxis     
 No chemoprophylaxis, n (%) 272 (67.8) 35 (71.4) 237 (67.3) NS
 Inadequate use, n (%) 72 (18.0) 6 (12.2) 66 (18.8)  
 Adequate use, n (%) 39 (9.7) 6 (12.2) 33 (9.4)  
 Unknown, n (%) 18 (4.5) 2 (4.1) 16 (4.5)  
Vital signs on admission     
 Body temperature, °C 38.5 (35.5-41.2) 38.7 (35.7-41.2) 38.5 (35.5-41.0) NS
 Pulse rate, beats per minute 95 (45–150) 105 (68–150) 92 (45–150) 0.0002
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 120 (64–190) 118 (64–160) 120 (73–190) NS
 Impaired consciousness (GCS < 15), n (%) 9 (2.2) 5 (10.2) 4 (1.1) 0.0019
 Cerebral malaria (GCS ≤ 11), n (%) 5 (1.2) 2 (4.1) 3 (0.9) NS
Laboratory data on admission     
 Haemoglobin, mmol/L 8.3 (2.5-11.1) 7.8 (3.8-10.9) 8.4 (2.5-11.1) NS
 Leucocyte count, x 109/L 5.1 (1.3-18.5) 6.1 (2.5-18.5) 5.0 (1.3-13.4) 0.011
 Thrombocytes, x 109/L 86 (2–385) 38 (10–164) 94 (2–385) <0.0001
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 98 (5–476) 166 (22–476) 87 (5–373) <0.0001
 Serum creatinine, μmol/L 95 (39–1,081) 110 (39–1,081) 95 (47–871) 0.0019
 Serum sodium, mmol/L 135 (115–146) 132 (115–142) 135 (119–146) <0.0001
 Lactate dehydrogenase, U/L 275 (118–2,297) 435 (135–2,038) 262 (118–2,297) <0.0001
 Total bilirubin, μmol/L 24 (4–416) 44 (9–269) 23 (4–416) <0.0001
 Plasma lactate, mmol/L 1.6 (0.5-6.2) 2.7 (0.6-6.2) 1.5 (0.5-4.7) <0.0001
Parasite count     
P. falciparum load (asexual parasites/μL) 8,400 (2–1,380,600) 162,000 (144–1,380,600) 5,430 (2–860,000) <0.0001
 Gametocytes, presence, absence, n (%) 64 (16.0), 337 (84.0) 11 (22.4), 38 (77.6) 53 (15.1), 299 (84.9) NS