Prototype 1 culture-capture apparatus with SPME is shown in panel A. The prototype 1 design consisted of a 250 mL conical flask modified with a B-40 joint that served as a receptacle for an aluminium stopper. A delrin polymer SPME holder was screwed into the aluminium stopper and a syringe piercable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) septum was placed between the mating surfaces to seal the sample before analysis. Design and dimensions of culture container (prototype 2) for headspace capture are shown in panel B. The wide-base (154 cm2) and shallow design maximizes culture efficiency and total parasite yield. The B-24 joint allows for easy access during RPMI addition and parasite sampling. Two side inlets facilitate the ease of low-oxygen gas-replacement and act as an access point for ‘purge and trap’ procedures and SPME of the headspace atmosphere.