Infected red cell binding (IRBC) to purified ICAM-1, VCAM and CD36 compared with binding to intra assay PBS controls for P. knowlesi infected patients P0002, P0006, P0009. P0010 and P0011. The median and inter quartile range (IQR) of six replicates per protein or PBS control per isolated are shown. The performance character of the assay is represented by P. falciparum clone HB3 showing the median (IQR) binding of all control assays (15 replicates per protein and PBS). Significance of binding was analaysed using the Mann-Whitney U test comparing specific binding of IRBC/mm2 to each purified protein with intra assay binding to PBS control areas: * p = < 0.05; ** p = < 0.01; ***p = < 0.0001.