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Table 2 Results of Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests on Pv PR values between GRUMP-UE defined urban (U) and rural (R) survey pairs for countries, regions and the World

From: The effects of urbanization on global Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission

Region No. pairs U > R U < R Z P-value
No. pairs Rank sum No. pairs Rank sum
Africa+ 428 33 1,432 86 5,708 −5.670 <0.001***
Ethiopia 80 18 587 61 2,573 −4.853 <0.001***
Sudan 192 7 47 9 89 −1.086 0.286
Yemen 35 7 41 13 169 −2.389 0.018**
Other countries 13 1 2 3 8 −1.095 0.361
Americas 49 23 636 19 263 2.307 0.021**
Brazil 22 15 135 3 36 2.156 0.032**
Mexico 10 1 10 9 45 −1.784 0.067*
Other countries 17 7 72 7 33 1.224 0.232
Asia+ 712 127 50,971 517 156,719 −11.194 <0.001***
Afghanistan 68 23 1,023 42 1,122 −0.323 0.749
Bangladesh 27 1 27 26 351 −3.892 <0.001***
China 26 8 146 18 205 −0.749 0.461
Indonesia 462 74 18,926 328 62,077 −9.256 <0.001***
India 26 4 60 22 291 −2.933 0.003***
Cambodia 12 1 6 11 72 −2.589 0.007***
Nepal 18 2 35 16 136 −2.199 0.021**
Pakistan 11 6 38 5 28 0.444 0.700
Thailand 12 1 2 11 76 −2.903 0.001***
Vietnam 23 0 0 21 231 −4.014 <0.001***
Other countries 29 7 124 17 176 −0.743 0.466
World 1,189 183 84,784 622 239,631 −11.732 <0.001***
  1. Africa+ =Africa, Saudi Arabia and Yemen; Asia+ =Central and South East Asia (*** = P < 0.01, ** = P < 0.05, * = P < 0.1).