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Table 3 Robustness analysis of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests on urban–rural Pv PR value pairs derived from various spatial and temporal limits

From: The effects of urbanization on global Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission

Region 100 km 5 years 100 km 2 years 50 km 5 years 50 km 2 years
Z P-value Z P-value Z P-value Z P-value
Africa+ −5.670 <0.001*** −5.623 <0.001*** −5.644 <0.001*** −5.397 <0.001***
Americas 2.307 0.021** 1.680 0.094* 0.486 0.631 0.730 0.471
Asia+ −11.194 <0.001*** −11.065 <0.001*** −9.080 <0.001*** −9.005 <0.001***
World −11.732 <0.001*** −11.555 <0.001*** −10.052 <0.001*** −9.757 <0.001***
No. pairs 1,189 1,106 1,156 1,106
Mean No. R 49.653 42.287 31.813 27.061
Overlap rate 6.752 5.349 4.206 3.423
  1. Africa+ =Africa, Saudi Arabia and Yemen; Asia+ =Central and South East Asia; Mean No. R = Mean number of rural surveys for each urban–rural pair; Overlap rate = Σ number of rural surveys paired to each urban survey/total number of rural surveys (*** = P < 0.01, ** = P < 0.05, * = P < 0.1).