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Table 1 Potential sustainability of vector elimination strategies in malaria control, elimination and eradication programmes

From: Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications

Subgroup Advantages Disadvantages Sustainability
Aerial spraying[20] Cost-effective and simple to implement Only effective for controlling exophilic mosquitoes It may fail as it does not target indoor feeding mosquitoes, which are responsible for the bulk of malaria transmission
Larviciding[21, 22] Can eliminate sources of mosquitoes There is need to develop a cheap and effective larvicide. Insect growth regulators are expensive and limited in availability. An. gambiae was eliminated in Brazil using arsenic larviciding
Environmental control[16] Can lead to vector elimination Environmental modification is expensive and may be possible only in more advanced economies Potential to bring about vector elimination
Biological control[16, 23] Effective if implemented correctly Expensive and technically challenging for poorer countries Potential to bring about vector elimination