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Table 1 Milestones in the history of malaria vector control in Zambia: 1929 to 2010

From: Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia

1929 Inception of malaria prevention and control efforts in Northern Rhodesia
1932 Malaria legislation initiated in Northern Rhodesia
1937 De Meillon research on vector behaviour (An. gambiae complex)
1944 Enactment of the Mosquito Extermination Act (environmental management)
1947 IRHS the Federal Malaria Eradication Programme in urban areas
1963 Split of Federation, Northern Rhodesia begins to lose resources to Southern Rhodesia
1964 Amendment of Mosquito Extermination Act (measures to reduce mosquito breeding)
1973 IRHS coverage in urban areas reduces by 30% and vector studies by Shelly conducted
1975 Chemoprophylaxis introduced in rural areas
1979 Studies on vector bionomics by Bransby Williams
1980 Mines reduce expenditure on malaria control
1985 UNICEF funded ITN project initiated in Samfya district
1992 Health reforms and inclusion of malaria in the basic health care package
1994 JICA funded ITN project in Chongwe district
1995 Annual in vivo surveillance commenced by NMCP, documentation of rising resistance to chloroquine, WHO funded ITN project in Ndola
1997 Signing of the WHO AIM Harare Declaration and implementation of the USAID and JICA funded integrated malaria initiative in three districts in Eastern province
1998 Extensive Malaria Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) studies conducted across the country
1999 Malariometric surveys to define malaria endemicity and consolidation of the ITN distribution through the Community Based Malaria Prevention and Control programme in 41 districts
2000 Development of the first 2000–2005 National Malaria Strategic Plan, reintroduction of IRS by the private-sector and prioritization of ITNs for vector control by the malaria control programme
2001 Consultative discussions by the public sector with private sector and other stakeholders on IRS scale up
2002 Needs assessments for IRS implementation conducted in 5 districts and introduction of multiple ITN distribution mechanisms
2003 Treatment policy change from chroloquine to ACTs and reintroduction of IRS by the public sector
2004 Introduction of the IVM strategy, scaling up IRS to eight districts and the waiving of taxes and tariffs on ITNs and retreatment kits by the government
2005 Development of the 2006 – 2010 National Malaria Strategic Plan, strengthening of supervision, geo-coding and logistics for IRS by HSSP, SEA conducted in fifteen IRS districts and introduction of the free mass distribution of ITNs in Zambia. Environmental management for malaria control launched in Lusaka on 21st October 2005
2006 Rapid scale up of ITNs for impact covering six of the nine provinces in the country and consultative meeting held with Valent Biosciences Coorporation (VBC) on larval source management using Bio-larvicides.
2007 Sockage pits, wash bays and evaporation tanks constructed in 15 IRS districts, efficacy studies on larvicides (Bacillus thuringesis var.israelensis, Insecticide Growth Regulators and Monomolecular Surface Films) conducted by the NMCC
2008 Public sector scales up IRS to thirty six districts, Production of guidelines on distribution and utilization of ITNs for Malaria Prevention and Control, Feasibility assessments for integrating LSM into the malaria control programme by Durham University, VBC and WHO conducted in Lusaka, Position statement on LSM made and Larviciding piloted in the urban areas of the initial five IRS districts, An inter-sectoral stakeholders consensus meeting on scaling up LSM to 8 urban districts held.
2009 Production of country specific guidelines for IRS in Zambia and scaling up the mass distribution of ITN to all the nine provinces, The use of larvivorus fish (Gambusia affinis) launched on 25th April during the commemoration of the World Malaria Day, Needs assessments for scaled up LSM implementation conducted in eight urban districts using Global fund Round 4, insecticide resistance monitoring strengthened.
2010 IRS scaled up to fifty four districts, training and orientation of community and district health management teams on LSM and Implementationin May 2010, Monitoring and Supervision conducted in collaboration with Konkola Copper Mines and Mopani Copper Mines. Insecticide resistance management strategy for malaria vector control established