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Table 1 Studies evaluating Anopheles mosquito mortality and Plasmodium transmission after imbibing blood containing ivermectin

From: Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission: a research agenda for a promising new tool for elimination

Reference Methods Species Results
Pampiglione 1985 [24] Feeding on impregnated cotton and on treated mice. An. stephensi Increased mortality in all groups feeding on impregnated cotton, 100% mortality in those feeding at 28,000 μg/L.
Dose: 140–28,000 μg/kg (once, subcutaneous)   100% mortality 24-hr post feeding on mice treated at dose ≥2,800 μg/kg. Increased mortality in all other dose-groups.
Iakubovich 1989 [25] Membrane and feeding on treated rabbits. Dose: 340 μg/kg (once, subcutaneous) An. stephensi Death rates among An. stephensi fed on rabbits 4, 5 and 6 days after administration of the drug were 93, 70 and 79%, respectively.
  An. atroparvus No difference with control seen in An. sacharovi and An. atroparvus.
  An. sacharovi  
Jones 1992 [26] Membrane and feeding on treated dogs Dose: 10–2,500 μg/kg (once, orally) An. quadrimaculatus Mortality ≥90% in all but one treatment groups 24-hr post blood feeding and ≥90% in all groups 48-hr post blood feeding
Gardner 1993 [27] Feeding on treated dogs An. quadrimaculatus Significant increase in mortality. LD50 = 9.9 μg/kg [6.0, 13.8]
Dose: 6–24 μg/kg (once, orally)   Significant decrease in oviposition and egg-hatching from survivors
Bockarie 1999 [21] Field collections of engorged females before and after MDA for lymphatic filariasis An. punctulatus Significant decrease in 9-day cumulative survival rate of Anopheles spp. collected 1–3 days post-treatment (0%) vs those collected pre-treatment (67%)
Dose: 400 μg/kg ivermectin +/- 6 mg/kg DEC (once, orally) An. koliensis The 48-hr survival rate of An. puctulatus collected from two houses in the a treated village the morning following MDA was 31% vs 94% from two houses of an untreated village
   Pre- and post-treatment all-night landing catches showed no significant reduction in human biting rates.
Foley 2000 [20] Feeding on one treated human volunteer Dose: 250 μg/kg (once, orally) An. farauti 12-day cumulative mortality rate of mosquitoes was 100%, 95%, 93%, and 40% for those fed 0, 7, 10 and 14 days post-treatment vs 10% for those fed pre-treatment
Fritz 2009 [28] Membrane and feeding on treated cattle An. gambiae Membrane feeding: LC50 for An. gambiae s.l. was 19.8 ± 2.8 ppb; no oviposition from mosquitoes fed on >10 ppb
  Dose: 600 μg/kg (once, subcutaneously) An. arabiensis Cattle feeding: Total cumulative survival of An. gambiae s.s. significantly different from controls when fed up to 20 days post-treatment; no or significantly reduced oviposition when fed up to 17 days post-treatment
Chaccour 2010 [19] Feeding on randomized, treated volunteers and controls   Mean 12-day survival time of 2.38 days [1.52, 3.24] for mosquitoes fed on treated subjects at 1 day post-treatment vs 5.52 days [4.65, 6.4] for mosquitoes fed on untreated control subjects
Dose: 200 μg/kg (once, orally) An. gambiae No effect on mosquitoes fed on treated subjects at 14 days post-treatment
Kobylinski 2010 [16] membrane feedings Dose: NA An. gambiae LC50 = 22.4 ng/ml [18.0, 26.9]. At sub-lethal concentrations, significantly reduced mosquito re-blood feeding rates and a second ivermectin blood meal, even at a decreased concentration, further increased mortality
Sylla 2010 [23] Field collections of engorged females before and after MDA for onchocerciasis An. gambiae 5-day cumulative survival of An. gambiae s.s. was significantly reduced from 3 treated villages vs pair-matched control villages
Dose: 150 μg/kg (once, orally) An. arabiensis An. gambiae s.s. captured in treated villages 1–6 days post-treatment had significantly reduced survival v those caught pre-MDA and those caught >7 days post-treatment
Kobylinski 2011 [22] Field collections of engorged females before and after MDA for onchocerciasis An. gambiae For 12 days after the MDA, mean P. falciparum sporozoite rate was significantly reduced by 79% in 3 replicate treated villages while it increased by 246% in pair-matched control villages
  Dose: 150 μg/kg (once, orally)   
Butters 2012 [29] Membrane feeding Dose: NA An. gambiae Sub-lethal concentrations (LC25 & LC5) caused significant knockdown and reduced recovery rates
Fritz 2012 [30] Membrane feeding Dose: NA An. arabiensis LC50 = 7 · 9 ppb [6.2, 9.9]; oviposition among survivors was significantly reduced at ≥7 ppb
Bastiaens 2012 [31] Feeding on treated Swiss mice, Wistar rats and Cynomolgus monkeys Dose: 200–400 μg/kg (different intervals, orally) An. stephensi 3-day cumulative mortality of mosquitoes fed on treated mice, rats and monkeys significantly differed from controls when fed up to 2, 4 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively
Kobylinski 2012 [32] Membrane feeding An. gambiae Sub-lethal concentrations significantly inhibited P. falciparum sporogony when fed prior to, concurrent with, and 6 and 9 days after infection with gametocytes
  Dose: NA