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Table 3 Prevalence of plasmodial infection in asymptomatic subjects according to farming systems (R0: no rice cultivation; R1: single rice cropping; R2: double rice cropping) and age groups

From: Inland valley rice production systems and malaria infection and disease in the forest region of western Côte d’Ivoire

    Plasmodium falciparum infection Plasmodium malariae infection Plasmodium ovale infection
Asexual blood stages Gametocytes Asexual blood stages Asexual blood stages
Agro-ecosystem Age groups (years) N Positive thick blood smear Prevalence rate (95% CI) Geometric mean density (95% CI) Positive thick blood smear Prevalence rate (95% CI) Positive thick blood smear Prevalence rate (95% CI) Positive thick blood smear Prevalence rate (95% CI)
R0 0–1 291 219 75.3 (70.4–80.1) 903 (702–1162) 33 11.3 (7.8–14.9) 27 9.3 (5.9–12.6) 3 1.0 (0.1–2.2)
2–4 830 637 76.7 (71.8–81.7) 578 (513–651) 46 5.5 (3.6–7.5) 72 8.7 (6.8–10.6) 15 1.8 (0.9–2.7)
5–9 1,263 830 65.7(61.3670.1) 237 (216–259) 29 2.3 (1.5–3.1) 45 3.6 (2.5–4.6) 5 0.4 (0.0–0.7)
10–19 1,482 748 50.5 (45.5–55.4) 134 (123–147) 19 1.3 (0.7–1.9) 27 1.8 (1.1–2.5) 3 0.2 (0.0–0.4)
20–39 1,884 700 37.2 (32.6–41.7) 93 (82–105) 26 1.4 (0.9–1.9) 10 0.5 (0.2–0.9) 2 0.1 (0.0–0.3)
> = 40 2,439 806 33.0 (29.6–36.5) 81 (69–94) 18 0.7 (0.2–1.3) 10 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
Total 8,189 3,940 48.1 (44.8–51.4) 180 (165–195) 171 2.1 (1.8–2.4) 191 2.3 (2.0–2.7) 28 0.3 (0.2–0.5)
R1 0–1 426 325 76.3 (70.3–82.3) 843 (583–1220) 33 7.7 (3.3–12.2) 36 8.5 (5.8–11.1) 8 1.9 (0.6–3.2)
2–4 1,207 926 76.7 (74.0–79.4) 669 (551–812) 79 6.5 (4.7–8.4) 95 7.9 (6.4–9.4) 11 0.9 (0.4–1.4)
5–9 1,997 1,259 63.0 (59.3–66.8) 225 (193–262) 76 3.8 (2.2–5.4) 46 2.3 (1.6–3.0) 4 0.2 (0.0–0.4)
10–19 2,194 932 42.5 (38.0–47.0) 120 (107–135) 32 1.5 (0.7–2.3) 12 0.5 (0.2–0.9) 6 0.3 (0.1–0.5)
20–39 3,107 965 31.1 (27.4–34.7) 81 (70–94) 31 1.0 (0.5–1.5) 12 0.4 (0.2–0.6) 1 0.0 (0.0–0.1)
> = 40 2,089 545 26.1 (21.9–30.3) 71 (59–86) 20 1.0 (0.6–1.4) 15 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
Total 11,020 4,952 44.9 (41.7–48.2) 193 (194–219) 271 2.5 (2.2–2.7) 216 2.0 (1.7–2.2) 30 0.3 (0.2–0.4)
R2 0–1 448 346 77.2 (73.4–81.1) 943 (765–1163) 40 8.9 (6.5–11.3) 29 6.5 (4.2–8.8) 5 1.1 (0.1–2.1)
2–4 1,031 812 78.8 (76.5–81.1) 614 (540–698) 64 6.1 (4.9–7.3) 78 7.6 (6.0–9.2) 20 1.9 (1.1–2.8)
5–9 2,008 1,256 62.5 (60.4–64.7) 243 (225–263) 56 2.8 (2.1–3.5) 35 1.7 (1.2–2.3) 5 0.2 (0.0–0.5)
10–19 2,097 982 46.8 (44.5–49.1) 137 (126–149) 36 1.7 (1.2–2.3) 16 0.8 (0.4–1.1) 5 0.2 (0.0–0.4)
20–39 2,617 821 31.4 (29.7–33.7) 91 (82–100) 16 0.6 (0.3–0.9) 9 0.3 (0.1–0.6) 3 0.1 (0.0–0.2)
> = 40 1,920 555 28.9 (26.7–31.1) 77 (71–84) 10 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 10 0.5 (0.2–0.8) 1 0.1 (0.0–0.2)
Total 10,121 4,772 47.1 (45.6–48.7) 206 (194–219) 222 2.2 (1.9–2.5) 177 1.7 (1.5–2.0) 39 0.4 (0.3–0.5)