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Table 1 Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite gene variation in isolates from the central Pacific Ocean coast of Latin America

From: Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax in Latin America: polymorphism and evolutionary relationships of the circumsporozoite gene

Geographic origin Total (n) acsp CRR genotype: Csp nucleotide sequence:
Type n PCR Product size (bp) RFLP type Isolate code Date of collection b, fGene sequence (bp) # of CRRu
Mexico: Southern Chiapas: (batch 2002–2005) 2 s vk210 1 ~700 a Mxch13 May 5, 2000 657 II 20
vk247 1 e>700 Mxch10 March 3, 1999 714 19
70 vk210 9 s ~700 a Mxch1 Jul 5, 2005 c894 I 20
12 m Mxch2 Oct 3, 2002
Mxch3 March 10, 2005
  vk210 7 s ~700 b Mxch4 July 4, 2002 c900 18
Mxch5 Feb 4, 2003
5 m Mxch7 May 16, 2002
   vk210 5 m ~500 c Mxch3 - c738 12
Mxch5 -
Mxch8 Nov 17, 2003
Mxch9 July 4, 2002
   vk247 33 s e>700 - Mxch6 July 2, 2002 c951 19
20 m Mxch7 -
Mxch8 -
Mxch9 -
Mxch12 Feb 16, 2004
Mxch11 Aug 16, 2004 714
d(batch 2006–2008) vk210 (1 s) ~700 d Mxch14 Nov 6, 2006 639 18
Oaxaca 2 s vk247   e>700 - MxO Feb 22, 2007 714 19
Nicaragua 37 s   20 ~700 a Nir1 Jan 11, 2007 711 III 22
vk210 12 ~650 e Nichn May 17, 2007 630 19
  5 ~600 f Nir2, Nov 27, 2006 603 18
Nichg July 2, 2007 603
Peru 9 s vk247   e>700 - Peru1 May, 2008 c951 19
  1. s, single csp repeat genotype infection ; m, isolates with mixed vk210-vk247 or vk210-vk210 infections (in bold letters).
  2. aNested PCR (fragments amplified with oligonucleotides CSP-f1/CSP-r1 followed by primers CSP-f2/Pv9a).
  3. bOnly those sequences obtained from the amplified product obtained by the first set of primers (CSP-f1/CSP-r1).
  4. CRRu, central repeat units.
  5. c225 nucleotides from the amino end were also obtained for these isolates.
  6. dSee data of batch 2006–2008 in Table 2.
  7. eMolecular size slightly larger and discernible from vk210a fragment.
  8. fThree different nucleotide sequences (I, II and III) were detected for RFLP-vk210a.