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Table 4 Seven samples (six patients) with discordant results between the different methods

From: A novel, single-amplification PCR targeting mitochondrial genome highly sensitive and specific in diagnosing malaria among returned travellers in Bergen, Norway

Patient Microscopy Parasitaemia by microscopy 18S PCR assays Mitochondrial PCR/sequencing Primary/recurrent infection Place of infection Interpretation
P 1 Negative 01 Pm Pm Primary Ghana Pm overlooked by microscopy
P 2 Negative2 01 Pv Pv Primary New Guinea Pv overlooked by microscopy
P 2 Pf, Pv
or Pk
1% Pv Pv Recurrent (Relapse) New Guinea Inconclusive/ incorrect diagnosis by microscopy
P 3 Pf + Po <1% Po Po Recurrent (Relapse) Uganda Over-diagnosed mixed infection by microscopy
P 4 Pf <1% Pf + Pm Pf Primary Liberia Under-diagnosed mixed infection by microscopy/sequencing
P 5 Pf + Pv 1% Pv Pv Primary3 SEA or CA Over-diagnosed mixed infection by microscopy
P 6 Pf 4 <1% Negative Pf Recurrent (Recrudescence) Guinea Un-detected low Pf parasitaemia by 18S PCR
  1. Abbreviations: Pf, Plasmodium falciparum; Pv, Plasmodium vivax; Po, Plasmodium ovale; Pm, Plasmodium malariae; Pk, Plasmodium knowlesi; SEA, South east Asia; CA, Central America.
  2. 1 Not detected any parasites.
  3. 2 Positive microscopy two days later (1% parasitaemia) and then the patient was diagnosed with severe malaria and treatment initiated.
  4. 3 Not given hypnozoite-eradicating treatment and re-admitted four weeks later with relapse of Plasmodium vivax.
  5. 4 Only one parasite detected.