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Table 1 General characteristics of malaria patients entered in the Rotterdam Malaria Cohort grouped according to self-reported adherence with malaria chemoprophylaxis

From: Severity of imported malaria: protective effect of taking malaria chemoprophylaxis

   Non-users Non-compliant users Compliant users P-values
   n = 361 n = 100 n = 98  
Demographics     
Age, years 39 (5–70) 37 (13–60) 38 (4–77) N.S.
Gender, n (%)     N.S.
  Male 263 (73) 73 (73) 62 (63)  
  female 98 (27) 27 (27) 36 (37)  
Ethnicity, n (%)     <0.001
  Caucasian 148 (42) 64 (65) 78 (80)  
  African 160 (45) 31 (31) 14 (14)  
  Asian 32 (22) 3 (5) 3 (3)  
  Other 16 (10) 1 (3) 3 (3)  
Immunity, n (%)     <0.001
  Non immune 138 (49) 50 (64) 30 (81)  
  Partially immune 139 (61) 28 (36) 7 (19)  
Travel history     
Reason for travel, n (%)    <0.001
  Tourist 69 (21) 28 (30) 35 (51)  
  VFR 114 (35) 27 (29) 11 (16)  
  Business 54 (17) 27 (29) 15 (22)  
  Expat 25 (8) 4 (4) 3 (4)  
  Sailor 37 (11) 3 (3) 4 (6)  
  Other 24 (7) 4 (4) 1 (1)  
Continent of infection, n (%)    <0.001
  African 290 (82) 82 (82) 54 (58)  
  Asian 42 (12) 10 (10) 22 (24)  
  Americas 19 (5) 7 (7) 14 (15)  
  Other 1 (0) 1 (1) 3 (3)  
Duration of complaints, n (%)    N.S.
  Less than 8 days 228 (63) 70 (70) 46 (47)  
  8–14 days 66 (18) 18 (18) 21 (21)  
  15–21 days 25 (7) 6 (6) 6 (6)  
  >28 days 9 (3) 5 (5) 2 (2)  
  Unknown 34 (9) 1 (1) 23 (24)  
   n = 361 n = 100 n = 98  
Vital signs     
Temperature, ° Celsius 38.5 (35.0–41.5) 38.8 (36.1–40.9) 38.5 (36.0–41.2) N.S.
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 120 (64–185) 123 (90–190) 120 (90–196) N.S.
Pulse rate, beats per minute 92 (50–150) 94 (56–130) 96 (60–150) N.S.
Laboratory features     
Haemoglobin, mmol/L 8.3 (2.5–11.0) 8.3 (4.0–11.1) 8.4 (4.2–10.7) N.S.
Thrombocytes, x109/L 84 (2–293) 99 (3–302) 96 (19–258) N.S.
Leucocyte count, x109/L 5.3 (1.3–18.5) 5.1 (1.9–13.4) 5.0 (1.5–12.9) N.S.
CRP, mg/L 96 (5–476) 77 (7–310) 71 (6–287) 0.0009 A: p<0.01, B: p<0.05
Creatinine, μmol/L 93 (39–1.081) 95 (55–213) 87 (46–405) 0.0019 B: p<0.01, C: P<0.01
LDH, U/L 265 (103–2.297) 270 (98–877) 237 (98–664) N.S.
Bilirubin, μmol/L 24 (3–416) 22 (6–95) 23 (5–262) N.S.
Lactate, mmol/L 1.6 (0.5–6.2) 1.6 (0.5–4.7) 1.3 (1.1–1.8) N.S.
  1. Legend: n = 559. Data are given as median (range) or number (%), as appropriate.
  2. A: No prophylaxis versus inadequate prophylaxis, B: no prophylaxis versus adequate prophylaxis, C: inadequate prophylaxis versus adequate prophylaxis, N.S. not statistically significant.