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Table 2 Outcome measures of patients with malaria, grouped according to self-reported adherence with malaria chemoprophylaxis

From: Severity of imported malaria: protective effect of taking malaria chemoprophylaxis

Outcome measure Group Proportion or mean (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value (with no chemoprophylaxis as comparator)
Severe malaria No chemoprophylaxis 53/361 Reference  
(WHO 2010) Non-compliant use 8/100 0.505 (0.232–1.102) N.S.
Compliant use 2/98 0.121 (0.029–0.516) 0.0002
ICU admission No chemoprophylaxis 73/361 Reference  
Non-compliant use 15/100 0.696 (0.380–1.276) N.S.
Compliant use 6/98 0.257 (0.108–0.611) 0.0008
Mechanical ventilation No chemoprophylaxis 3/361 Reference  
Non-compliant use 1/100 1.205 (0.124–11.722) N.S.
Compliant use 0/98 0.520 (0.027–10.158) N.S.
Renal replacement therapy No chemoprophylaxis 7/361 Reference  
Non-compliant use 0/100 0.235 (0.013–4.150) N.S.
Compliant use 0/98 0.240 (0.014–4.241) N.S.
Exchange transfusion No chemoprophylaxis 35/361 Reference  
Non-compliant use 6/100 0.595 (0.243–1.457) N.S.
Compliant use 1/98 0.096 (0.013–0.710) 0.0024
Death No chemoprophylaxis 2/361 Reference  
Non-compliant use 0/100 0.715 (0.034–15.033) N.S.
Compliant use 0/98 0.730 (0.035–15.341) N.S.
P. falciparum species No chemoprophylaxis 285/358* Reference  
Non-compliant use 77/100 0.858 (0.504–1.460) N.S.
Compliant use 41/98 0.184 (0.114–0.297) <0.0001
P. falciparum parasite load (asexual parasites per μL) No chemoprophylaxis 73,774 (55,620–91,928) Reference  
Non-compliant use 48,866 (20,264–77,467) N.A. N.S.
Compliant use 24,563 (5,163–43,963) N.A. 0.0004
Time in hospital (days) No chemoprophylaxis 4.8 (4.4–5.2) Reference  
Non-compliant use 4.8 (4.4–5.3) N.A. N.S.
Compliant use 2.9 (2.4–3.5) N.A. <0.0001
  1. Legend: * = 3 patients with a mixed P. falciparum/non-falciparum infection were excluded, CI confidence interval, N.A. not applicable, N.S. not statistically significant.