This figure reports annual estimated malaria cases in total and by species, when available. It also reports a number of significant events in Peruvian malaria control. Estimate quality likely varies based on multiple unmeasured factors. For example, the 1939 estimate may have occurred prior to suitable infrastructure. In addition, numbers reported for 1991–1994 and 1996–1999 were based on visual estimates from line and bar graphs and are reported for qualitative analysis [2, 4–7].