C57BL/6 mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum and then inoculated with 1×106Plasmodium berghei ANKA-pRBCs eight weeks later (co-infection) and were analysed together with P. berghei ANKA-mono-infected mice ( P. berghei ANKA). The mice were dissected on days 0, 3, 5, 8 post-P. berghei ANKA infection and splenocytes were cultured. Cytokines in the splenocyte culture supernatants were measured in duplicated wells using ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The bar charts represent the level of splenic IFN-γ (A), IL-10 (B), IL-4 (C), IL-5 (D), and IL-13 (E) from at least three mice per group. Bars represent the mean values ± SD. Student t test by comparisons between the two groups was performed with * indicating P<0.01.