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Table 5 Treatment outcomes of children treated by CHWs in Iganga-Mayuge DSS

From: Integrated community case management of malaria and pneumonia increases prompt and appropriate treatment for pneumonia symptoms in children under five years in Eastern Uganda

Characteristic Intervention Control RR (95% CI)
All children treated by CHWs N = 609 N = 667  
Overall treatment failure 90 (14.8%) 101 (15.1%) 0.88 (0.67-1.18)
Received additional* antibiotics 7 (1.2%) 13 (2.0%) 0.77 (0.32-1.86)
Received additional** anti-malarials 4 (0.7%) 10 (1.5%) 0.44 (0.15-1.28)
Hospitalization 10 (1.6%) 9 (1.4%) 1.47 (0.64-3.38)
Temperature ≥ 37.5°C on day 4 7 (1.2%) 23 (3.5%) 0.29 (0.11-0.78)
Had fast breathing on day 4 66 (10.8%) 48 (7.2%) 1.29 (0.87-1.92)
  Difference in fast breathing, day 1& 4† 9.2% 4.2% p-value = 0.01
Self reported treatment failure 83 (13.7%) 170 (25.5%) 0.58 (0.46-0.74)
Children with malaria symptoms
Characteristic Intervention Control RR (95% CI)
n = 589 n = 647
Overall treatment failure in malaria 84 (14.3%) 99 (15.3%) 0.85 (0.64-1.13)
Received additional* antibiotics 6 (1.0%) 13 (2.0%) 0.65 (0.26-1.65)
Received additional** anti-malarials 3 (0.5%) 10 (1.6%) 0.35 (0.11-1.11)
Hospitalization 9 (1.5%) 9 (1.4%) 1.36 (0.59-3.16)
Temperature ≥ 37.5°C on day 4 7 (1.2%) 22 (3.4%) 0.30 (0.11-0.81)
Had fast breathing on day 4 62 (10.5%) 48 (7.4%) 1.22 (0.82-1.82)
  Difference in fast breathing, day 1& 4,† 9.5% 4.0% p-value = 0.006
Self reported treatment failure 78 (13.3%) 168 (26.0%) 0.56 (0.44-0.71)
Children with self reported pneumonia symptoms
Characteristic Intervention Control RR (95% CI)
n = 251 n = 279
Overall treatment failure in “pneumonia” 43 (17.1%) 56 (20.1%) 0.77 (0.52-1.13)
Received additional* antibiotics 2 (0.8%) 10 (3.6%) 0.30 (0.08-1.21)
Received additional** anti-malarials 0 (0) 8 (2.9%) -
Hospitalization 4 (1.6%) 3 (1.1%) 2.42 (0.60-9.84)
Temperature ≥ 37.5°C on day 4 5 (2.0%) 11 (3.9%) 0.41 (0.10-1.75)
Had fast breathing on day 4 34 (13.6%) 25 (9.0%) 1.30 (0.76-2.21)
  Difference in fast breathing, day 1& 4 † 18.3% 3.6% p-value < 0.001
Self reported treatment failure 22 (8.8) 74 (26.5) 0.35 (0.22-0.56)
  1. * Additional antibiotics received after CHW treatment in intervention arm or after treatment from other source where children were referred in control arm. The CHWs in the control arm did not have antibiotics and children with pneumonia symptoms are expected to receive antibiotics from other health providers.
  2. ** Additional anti-malarials received after treatment by CHWs.
  3. † difference between percentage of children with fast breathing on day one and four, p-value comparing difference in intervention and control.